Speaking about Bavarian masonry, it should be borne in mind that its features are only in the properties of the material used, and not in the masonry process. As a rule, all elements have a slightly different color: several shades of the same color scheme are combined. The result is an unusual composition that almost immediately attracts attention..
For the first time, Bavarian masonry was used in Germany in the 17th century. However, this material was widely disseminated only a few years ago. Today this technology is used in the construction of not only country houses, but also other buildings on the territory. Bavarian masonry has also become popular in Russia.
Not only the materials used, but also the features of the technology have an impact on the design of the wall.. An attractive surface is obtained by observing a number of points.
For masonry in the style of the 17th century, blocks can be used from 4 to 8 colors. The first row is created using all blocks.
The main task when laying is keeping one color scale.
The required effect is achieved when using single brick.
Neighboring blocks should not be of the same tone, otherwise, colored spots may appear. Cannot be aligned vertically or horizontally.
It is recommended to lay the selected brick with an offset. Rhythmic repetition can lead to the appearance of a pattern. The main task is to match the vertical seam across the row.
Before the actual execution of the work, masonry samples are often created as an example.. At this stage, a drawing is thought out to achieve an attractive effect..
When using glossy bricks, preference should be given to muted tones, with textured surfaces – contrasting surfaces.
- The classic choice is combination of red and brown colors. And there are also gray-pink and yellow-brown.
How brick is made?
Modern facing bricks are made using flash firing technology. It is characterized by several features.
- The technology of material blackening has been used for a long period. from red clay.
- Modern kilns are used for firing, which exclude the possibility of oxygen entering the combustion zone. This produces more carbon..
- The firing temperature is 1000 degrees Celsius. At this mark, instant combustion of various additives occurs..
- Gas streams pull carbon, which actually sprinkle it on the surface. This ensures staining.
- Tones and semitones are obtained depending on whether, how much carbon is fed to the treatment area.
- At the final stage, more oxygen is fed into the furnace, due to which the heating temperature of the upper layer increases. It becomes the reason for the removal of harmful impurities from the clay. As a result, the color of the surface layer changes..
- An increase in the combustion temperature causes a strong structure to be obtained., but the basic original properties remain unchanged. The service life is several hundred years..
- The thickness of the vitreous surface layer is also controlled by the processing mode. Depending on the specific brand, the indicator varies from 2 to 4 mm. Another plus is that efflorescence does not appear on the surface, since too high a temperature leads to the removal of salts.
- Some manufacturers were able to create fancy surfaces with multi-colored stains.. Such a brick costs much more, therefore it is used in the construction of residential buildings..
- The main feature of the technology concerns the absence of various pigments in the composition. This is because the dye is an inert compound that cannot respond to the reaction.
Brick classification is carried out according to several different parameters..
By surface type allocate smooth and embossed blocks. Variants created with the effect of artificial aging are very popular..
By color. Available in beige, brown and red bricks.
By structure highlight options with voids inside and full-bodied.
- By size brick blocks are single, double or euro.
A large number of different companies are engaged in the production of the material in question..
Offers from foreign companies are more popular, however, domestically produced blocks are much cheaper..
The selection of colors is carried out in accordance with certain recommendations.
- The color scheme should be combined with each other. It is unacceptable to combine warm and pastel colors. Due to this, an unnecessarily variegated pattern is created..
- The distribution of colors should spread evenly over the entire area.. This is done in order to avoid the predominance of colors..
- If you wish, you can create a unique and inimitable pattern.. The range of blocks is gradually expanding.
There are a huge number of typical projects on the Internet that involve the use of Bavarian masonry technology.. Everything can be divided into several main groups:
one-story and two-story;
with panoramic glazing;
with a terrace;
with straight and sloping roofs;
with a garage;
- with bath and saunas.
When choosing, attention is also paid to the area. There are options where facing brick is used as a decorative material. However, brickwork can act as a load-bearing structure..
The projects of one-story houses are the cheapest in execution. They can be of various sizes and layouts.. The most popular options are with panoramic glazing. Their features:
- more light enters the room;
- an attractive view opens.
One-story houses are often erected with open terraces. They become a resting place for the whole family. If you have a car, then you can choose a project with a garage on the ground floor..
The strength of the material used is sufficient for the construction of a load-bearing wall that can withstand high loads. Therefore, when using it, you can build two-story structures.. Among the features of such projects, we note the following points:
- a dining room and a living room are arranged on the ground floor;
- the garage can be part of a residential building, due to which the area is used more efficiently;
- open and closed terraces are being developed.
Projects of two-story houses are much more expensive to execute. This is due to the fact that the foundation must be more solid..
The classification of projects is also carried out by design. The most widespread options are with white windows. A similar emphasis is made in the case of large window openings..
The clad façade can be made using different materials and combining them with Bavarian masonry. They are as follows:
natural or artificial stone;
- sandwich panels.
The facade can be divided into zones, due to which the individual elements of the structure stand out. Options with a seam or with inserts are less popular lately.
When using Bavarian masonry technology, brown and red shades prevail. That is why projects with a brown roof are often found..
Interior decoration is carried out depending on personal preference. Most often, for Bavarian masonry, wood or laminated panels are used inside. The most popular is the light range..
Step-by-step instructions for work
You can lay the wall using Bavarian technology yourself. To begin with, the most suitable material is selected. At the time of selection of building materials for such a technology, attention is paid to the color of the surface and some other criteria.
- Manufacturing quality. When considering a block, attention must be paid to ensure that the structure does not have chips and cracks. Even a minor defect will lead to a significant reduction in service life..
- No color spots. All blocks should be solid, uneven color indicates poor material quality.
- Manufacturer. You should purchase only high-quality bricks from bona fide manufacturers..
When marking, the manufacturer indicates several different parameters.. The recommended strength grade is not less than M150, the level of frost resistance is not less than F50, the structure must absorb moisture from 8 to 10%.
To work, you will need certain tools and consumables.
Professional pistol. It is used to fill joints with a special mortar. Without such a tool, it is almost impossible to do the job efficiently..
Trowel – used for straightening work.
Putty knife or straightening mount-joining.
Straightening blade, suitable for cleaning seams.
Professional double-sided trowel for leveling seams, obtaining the required width and thickness.
Narrow steel trowel to obtain a quality seam.
Special brush for cleaning surfaces that have hard or soft bristles.
- Special blend for grouting in the required shade.
It should be noted that inexperienced bricklayers often neglect the purchase of special tools to maintain the required joint thickness. Instead, a round metal bar with a diameter of 10 mm is used. It is almost impossible to solve the problem with high quality.
The first step is to prepare the foundation. You can proceed to it after preparing the tool and materials. It is divided into several points..
The selection of the pattern is in progress. There are several shades of Bavarian brick, experts do not recommend using 4 shades at the same time. With an increase in the number of colors, the task becomes much more complicated. There are special programs that allow you to create an attractive drawing. It should be borne in mind that in this case, it is impossible to allow the alternation of bricks of certain shades.. The main color should take up no more than 50% of the space.
Bavarian technology can be used exclusively for joining.
For masonry, a special color composition is often used. It costs much more than simple ones, but when applied, a more reliable design is obtained. Heat insulating materials should be used for finishing. Most often, foam is used for this, which has high insulating properties..
After carrying out the preparatory work, you can proceed to the direct laying of the material.
To begin with, the horizontalness of the wall is checked using a plumb line. The position of the wall along the entire height is checked, marks are set along the foundation base.
The marking of the position of the first row of blocks is applied. All facing material must be free from structural deformations. It is recommended to start work from the corner, after which the brick is laid out in one row.
The seam size is controlled using a special tool or a regular template.
If there is not a whole brick at the end of the layout, then the width of the gap changes. And also you can cut the block.
Any rubbish is removed from the wall. The creation of forests is carried out in advance. They can be made from ordinary wooden beams. There are also metal structures on sale that are easy to use, lightweight and reliable..
Before directly performing the masonry work, you need to make a mortar. The classic mortar is mixed from cement and sand in a ratio of 1 to 4. Liquid is added as needed to obtain a mixture of the required consistency.
A waterproofing layer is laid on the foundation, in the capacity of which sheets of roofing material are used.
At the time of creating the corner bases, you need to monitor the verticality using a plumb line or a building level.
4 bricks are laid at the corners at once. In the course of the work, the brick block is reduced by half.
A rope is pulled between the created corners to maintain the same level. It is on it that horizontality will be checked..
The next step is to lay the bricks. The resulting seam is controlled with a special tool.
The solution that turns out to be on the front part is cleaned with a soft, wet cloth. The color of each block is selected in accordance with the developed scheme.
After laying several rows, they begin to seal the seams.. At this stage, you need to be careful, and not rush to do this work.. If at the time of processing it turns out that there is not enough solution in one place, you can add it a little.
Most of the difficulties arise with the creation of an opening. This is due to the fact that you have to cut blocks to length.
To significantly increase the reliability of the finish, you should stock up on special reinforcement of a periodic profile.
The hardest part is keeping all the rows horizontal. For this, the base is leveled correctly and the required joint thickness is maintained..
Bavarian masonry is often used to create modern homes. There are a lot of beautiful examples.
The house is decorated with a large sloping roof that forms an attic. At the same time, masonry and decorative plaster are combined.
Common projects of two-story houses with a flat roof. Brick can be used for full finishing.
Stonework is often combined with wood paneling. At the same time, the case of highlighting individual structural elements looks very original..
- The modern European version is associated with the use of simple shapes and straight lines.. Projects with complex glazing look original. However, such projects are much more expensive to implement..
As a rule, the more unusual the project, the more attractive it is..
In conclusion, note that Bavarian masonry is an excellent choice for cladding any residential or other structure. Of course, this option is much more expensive than others, but the material used itself can last more than a century..