A country house made of timber, logs or boards is a highly environmentally friendly and pre-fabricated structure that is in high demand among suburban residents. Both of these qualities make such homes ubiquitous.. They are especially in demand among country owners..
Advantages and disadvantages
Like any wooden house, a structure made of glued, rounded, profiled beams, as well as rounded calibrated logs, has a number of advantages..
- Low thermal conductivity. In terms of the transmittance of cold in winter and heat in summer, a wooden house is second only to a building with walls made of gas silicate. Aerated concrete and foam concrete (foam blocks) do not conduct frost and heat, however, they have a significant drawback – after 35 years they crack, which requires major repairs to the walls, the imposition of a metal frame, brick cladding, etc..
- Complete absence of harmful compounds. In the simplest case, the tree can be coated with a concentrated solution of any mineral salt that prevents the formation of mold and mildew. The construction industry produces antiseptics, in which, although they contain additional additive chemicals, their composition does not have any odor, indicating the presence of particularly harmful fumes. What can not be said about silicate bricks (and it does not matter whether they are porous or solid), as well as plastic and composite used for finishing, bituminous liquid and viscous building materials, etc..
- Cheapness. Compared to the monolithic frame structure and foam bricks, which raise doubts about the durability and reliability, the wood for which maintenance (coating with antiseptics once every 7 years, varnishing or paint every 3-5 years) will ultimately cost significantly less.
- Erection speed. No masonry mixtures are required, the wood is immediately fastened with bolts and studs, on threaded connections.
- Sliced logs, beams and boards do not require any finishing. It is possible to cover with the same varnishes and paints, and special connoisseurs of environmentally friendly construction cover the wood with a thin layer (no thicker than the varnish) of beeswax or wood (coniferous) resin. Garden house in the country – timber structure – the ideal embodiment of the unity of man and nature.
There are also disadvantages of wooden structures and structures.
- Firstly, poorly dried wood that has not been aged for at least a year is noticeably deformed.. You may find that a 6-meter piece of timber that has been lying, for example, in the heat under a canopy or in the attic, where it was reliably protected from the influence of precipitation and the climate changing throughout the year, will twist and move 10 degrees to the side. Straightening a stale timber will cause it to crack – longitudinal cracks are formed along the wood fibers.
- Secondly, wood, like other building materials, shrinks, which is why a house built from poorly dried timber can lead a little to either side. Unlike bricks and foam blocks, reinforced concrete, it is impossible to delay the construction – after ordering timber, it should be put into operation as soon as possible, and not lie for a year or more. Otherwise, the craftsmen will have to straighten and adjust the crooked products, which will significantly raise the price of the work performed on the construction of the structure..
Types of timber
For industrial purposes (construction), timber is produced in three types: glued, rounded and profiled.
Glued laminated timber is produced by gluing boards into square composite blocks. Distantly resembles gluing thin-sheet wood into plywood. Basically, spruce or pine is used for glued beams, less often deciduous species.
Glued laminated timber eliminates the presence of knots – defects inherent in solid wood are eliminated in it, since when the latter is pre-cut into thin layers, they are cut out and sorted before gluing. Second use of laminated veneer lumber – joinery.
Unlike glued timber, where the structure of the wood is changed by human intervention, the profiled timber does not have a disturbed structure.. Form from the outside, facing the street or courtyard, rounded, curly or otherwise processed. Internal – smooth – turned into the premises formed during the construction of housing construction, and is a flat surface. It is processed by planing and does not require special finishing. Profiled beam is a building material in which there are spikes and grooves: this does not allow the laid beams to disperse, forming cracks and irregularities in a year or more from the date of the end of the main stage of construction.
Rounded timber – a log from which excess layers have been removed on the sides. Two sides form an arc of a regular circle, the other two coincide completely with the straight lines on which they lie. Unlike a rounded log, on which a longitudinal groove with a round surface is cut, allowing these logs to be laid motionlessly, an ordinary log is subjected to straight chipping on both sides.. The processed rounded (even) log, having adopted a constant – along its entire length – diameter, undergoes secondary processing. Further, from the rounded beam, by cutting off the third side, you can get a rounded profiled beam. From the profiled beam, you can get, in turn, a profiled or ordinary (smooth cut) beam.
The staging of processing is due to the requirements of the customer: the more complicated the process of manufacturing a bar of the requested type and variety, the more expensive a specific product will be for the same consumer, but there is no need to doubt its high quality.
A typical project of a one-storey house made of timber with an area of 6×8 with a terrace, converted – if the client wishes for a veranda, implies the following plan:
- terrace – 16 m2,
- kitchen-dining room – 14 m2,
- bathroom and hallway – 4 m2 each,
- bedroom – 10 m2.
Taking into account the walls on the plan, the dimensions may change slightly. On the site, the house will occupy its 48 m2 – for these needs, the foundation is being built at the initial stage. As a “reverse project” – the 8×6 option, in which the location and square footage of the rooms will be as follows:
- terrace and vestibule – 6 m2 each,
- living room – 18 m2,
- the entrance hall is combined with the kitchen and is zoned, similar to the living room,
- attic room (bedroom) – 24 m2.
On the ground floor, a staircase leads to the attic bedroom. The house looks like a main building with an extension (terrace and vestibule). The terrace can be converted into a veranda. The garage is usually located on the basement floor – along with the workshop; Russian legislation allows deepening below ground level up to 5 m.This project can be easily turned into a two-story project by changing the attic plan, copying the second floor in the image and likeness of the first.
Instead of a vestibule and a terrace on the second floor, a balcony or space is arranged, vaguely resembling a loggia in apartment buildings.
How to build?
Simplified construction process is as follows. The place allotted at the summer cottage is cleared and leveled, measured, according to the plan. Under the foundation, a pit is digging with a depth of 1-2 m, depending on the geographical latitude and weather and climatic conditions of the area. The fact is that freezing of the soil can go deep up to 2 m, depending on the subzero temperature and the actual duration of the period of frost and frost.
The stages of building a foundation are simplified as follows:
- installation of sand and gravel cushion and installation of waterproofing layers;
- welding the frame under the tape perimeter, installing frame walls, according to the plan of future rooms;
- installation of formwork along the perimeter and in the walls (lintels), pouring concrete.
After hardening, the cast foundation is kept for at least a month. For maximum strength gain, it is poured with water 6 hours after pouring (the concrete will set by that time) every 2-3 hours daily, for at least 28 days.
After the completion of work with the foundation, they proceed to the wooden assembly – load-bearing walls and partitions, taking into account the openings for windows and doors. Regardless of whether the owner built the house with his own hands, or attracted handymen, after assembling the main structure – walls, ceiling, attic and roof – the erected structure is allowed to stand for six months before the foundation and the main part of the building shrink..
To make the finishing inside the house in stages, the craftsmen go through the following stages:
- installation of windows and doors according to the project plan;
- arrangement of a finished floor in each room.
In the bathroom, an additional screed is made and tiles are laid. Additional layers of waterproofing are applied to the walls so that dampness and moisture do not pass into the room or other room adjacent to the bathroom. To prevent the “walking” tree from tearing the tiled cladding, an additional layer is used – the so-called false wall with technological gaps, for example, made of sheet steel or plastic.
The technology of the “floating false wall” resembles the technological gaps of vinyl siding, which does not allow it to bend in an arc in the heat and stretch, tear in the cold.
Then the design of the rooms is finished in accordance with the wishes of the customer.. This can be painted on the walls, decorative varnish or the installation of wall panels with wallpaper. There are dozens of options here – they are equally good for a mini-house less than 30 m2, and for impressive buildings of a hundred or more “squares”. After finishing the finishing, the owners of the new house select the interior (furniture, appliances, other items) so that the furnishings of this living space are combined with the finishing most fully.