Okosyachka in a log house

No home is complete without elements such as doors and windows. One of the characteristic features of buildings made of wood, and especially of timber, is the presence of shrinkage due to a seasonal decrease or increase in the moisture content in the material. And this becomes the reason for the displacement of the height of the crowns, due to which window and door openings are greatly affected. They can skew or even start to break. To avoid this, special structures, the so-called windows, are installed in the openings. Let’s try to figure out how an element of this type is made in a log house.

Description and purpose

Technologies for the construction of wooden houses and the materials used for this are constantly being updated and improved.. At the same time, timber buildings do not lose their relevance and popularity due to the fact that they are environmentally friendly and have remarkable heat-saving characteristics. In addition, they have a pleasant appearance. Naturally, there are certain disadvantages in a house made of timber. One of them can be called constant fluctuation of the dimensions of the “box”.

Even if the building has ceased to shrink, then in a year it will collect moisture, after which the process of its release begins..

To reduce the aforementioned negative effect, wintering is used. The essence of this procedure is – so that the created casing of the building stands under its mass for a certain period. This will allow the logs to “find their own place” and the shrinkage rate will decrease. But even in this case, it is impossible to do without such a thing as a jar. In the most simple language, this is another frame that is fixed in the log house so that it can be moved in different directions by about 70 millimeters. As a rule, this indicator is enough so that the deformations of the log house do not have a serious impact on window openings and on parts of door openings..

Any correct casing box has the following components:

  • top;

  • a pair of side elements;

  • threshold or window sill board of the door or window opening.

Okosyachka performs the following functions in the type of buildings under consideration:

  • makes it possible to preserve the geometry of the frame by strengthening the end area of ​​the openings, restrains the displacement of the rims;

  • reduces the risk of reducing the tightness of elements in contact with each other;

  • reduces the risk of displacement of the walls between the openings;

  • allows you to provide excellent functionality of doors and glass units, eliminating their deformation and subsequent destruction.

The ideal indicator of the width of the constituent elements of the casing will be 200-250 millimeters.. The use of a box with a lower indicator is irrelevant, because this will cause the weakness of the design in question. If you use elements of greater thickness, then this can cause cracks in the tree, which in the future will be the cause of the destruction of the box..

Therefore, experts say that it is best to use a timber for this, which has a moisture indicator in the range of 10-15%.

Species overview

Okosyachka can be of various types. Consider two options for categories of this design:

  • roughing and finishing;

  • by the method of creating.

Roughing and finishing

A rough cut is a cheap solution for wooden houses, where finishing will be done in the future. All elements of such a casing can be made by the glue method or from the solid. Grinding is not carried out here. The shape of the profile is in the form of the letter P and the letter T. The choice of the quarter is also not done. Installation of plastic windows is carried out on a profile of the installation type. The slopes and sill will also be plastic. And the opening should be finished from the outside and from the inside using platbands. Note that the window is mounted on a plane without a groove.

Finishing casing can be made from solid wood, or maybe by glue method.. The second option is also called Eurosad. The first type should be created exclusively from dry and of the highest quality material. Typically, this casing is formed from pre-dried pine, larch or Kelo dead wood. The profile is usually made in the shape of the letter P with a choice of a quarter or without it.

It will look good in buildings made of thick logs, in hand-cut log cabins, as well as in buildings from a gun carriage..

If we talk about the so-called Euro-boarding, then this is a rather popular variation of the finishing cut, which does not require trimming the slopes. Such a construction is made by a type-setting-adhesive technique from dry bars. If they have knots, then they are glued into a layer, and if without knots, then into a microthorn. The profile can be created in the shape of the letters P and T. It can also be with an expansion inside the opening or straight, as well as with a quarter or without it..

By manufacturing method

According to the criterion of the methodology for creating a box in a wooden house made of timber, there are:

  • in a mortgage bar;

  • monolith thorn;

  • “In the deck”.

Let’s figure out what each of the types is.

A spike-monolith product is a rectangular bar in the shape of the letter T. The spike is installed in special grooves that are made in vertical walls from a bar. The vertical area of ​​the bar will also be the slope of the window. The element is fastened from above and below using special fastening elements. And on the sides, the free areas are simply foamed. The bar can be created together with the casing from a single blank or fixed with glue.

The design has high performance and durability. Sometimes a homemade window is formed in a similar way in a house from a timber for plastic windows.

The product of the third type is made by arranging a groove on the sides of the opening from the inside, where the timber will be placed, which has a square section. It is not fixed, but hammered into a groove, which makes it possible to move it along it, if necessary. Finishing boards are fixed to the bar using self-tapping screws. The casing is fastened at the bottom. And the voids formed are filled with various soft heat insulators.. Despite the simplicity and availability of this method, its reliability is low.. And you will need to carry out additional finishing work. Due to the fact that it is difficult to make normal sealing here, it is imperative that there is a need to make re-equipment or repairs..

If you need a box “in the deck”, then when creating an opening in vertical bars you will need to cut out a thorn where the deck will fit, which is made in the shape of the letter P. From above, the structure is burst with a vertex and fixed with self-tapping screws. Installation is carried out using seals. This design will be an excellent solution for “safe” type entrance doors, as well as large windows made of plastic or wood. It makes it possible to provide excellent resistance to loads of mechanical type of multidirectional nature..

But it will be extremely difficult and quite expensive to make this type of casing on your own..

Materials (edit)

Usually, a jaw is created from high quality pre-dried wood, which has a moisture content of about 12%. A material with a lower percentage of moisture can have very small cracks that are not visible to the eye. But their presence during use will cause partial or complete deformation of the structure. Usually coniferous wood is used for this.. But the best solution would be a hard material that does not have falling out knots, and is also not prone to cracking..

The width of the structure is usually selected taking into account the width of the existing walls. Most often, beams are used in the size of 10, 15 or 20 centimeters, or edged boards. Sometimes several materials are involved at the same time. For example, a popular combination will be the use of a bar for risers and tops, and for a window sill – a type-setting adhesive board.

Naturally, the wood used must be pre-treated with antiseptic agents, fire retardants, as well as paints and varnishes..

Casing installation

Now let’s try to figure out how you can install the casing. The glued construction is especially popular.. This is a finished product made in production for a specific climate. Such a box should have a perfectly flat surface without any chipping or knots. But often for log houses they use a self-made structure.. Especially in the context of the fact that in such houses, the installation of plastic windows is increasingly taking place. Let’s try to figure out how to install such a casing yourself.

Let’s consider this on the example of installation “in a thorn”.

  • The marking of the opening of the required dimensions is carried out.

  • Using a chainsaw, level the planes in the middle of the ends.

  • We draw lines of a vertical type, and one more on both sides of them at a distance of 30 millimeters.

  • We cut grooves on the sides using the marks applied..

  • The surface should be sanded and treated with protective compounds.

  • Using a circular or end-type saw, a bar of the required dimensions is created in the shape of the letter T.

  • Now you should install the upper jumper so that there is a gap of 50 millimeters, where the insulation will be installed. This gap is also needed to move it freely in case of vertical shrinkage..

  • After that, the installation of the window sill or door threshold is carried out..

  • The so-called breathable tapes are glued to the sidewalls.

  • We seal all joints.

This completes the installation process for plastic windows.. The installation of the door casing is carried out according to a similar principle.. The only difference will be that the constituent elements here will have large dimensions..

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