It is on linoleum that the choice often falls as the best floor covering for interior decoration. This material is practical and durable, unpretentious in everyday life and does not require special care. In addition, it has a low cost..
However, you need to keep in mind that there are many different types of this material for different rooms. Each of them has its own special characteristics. So, for example, linoleum for a living room should be completely different than a covering laid in a public place and vice versa..
What does wear resistance mean??
Among the main advantages of linoleum, many call it durability. It means that the coating retains its original appearance, does not deform or damage for a long time, while not requiring special handling. Indeed, this material is often used in the most difficult rooms, where, for example, natural board or laminate flooring quickly fell into disrepair. And the laminate practically does not change either its appearance or its properties for many years..
He is not afraid of temperature extremes, high humidity and serves as a negative environment for the development of mold and mildew. If this coating is fixed in the correct way and selected in such a way that it meets the purposes of the room, then it will be able to serve for a really long time..
On rolls, you can often observe a variety of numbers and letters denoting any properties of the material..
Most often, in an extensive range of types of linoleum, three types are distinguished, which characterize the functional orientation of the canvas. Number 2 is customary to designate linoleums for residential premises. They are less thick, but strong enough to withstand everyday stress. In addition, they do not contain toxic substances that can have a very negative effect on the body and human health up to chronic diseases..
There are coatings designed specifically for offices and public spaces. They are marked with the number three, which means their increased thickness and durability..
Thus, industrial coatings have the best characteristics in terms of abrasion and wear resistance. They can be several times thicker than household-type linoleums, which is understandable, because in production workshops, heavy machines that cause vibrations and a large number of computers and other computing equipment are often operated. Such materials are indicated by the number 4.
To mark the degree of strength, durability and wear resistance of the coating, numbers from 1 to 4 are used, where 1 denotes the fastest-wearing blade, and 4 denotes the most load-bearing.
This indicator is usually measured based on the thickness of the linoleum or, in some cases, such as in a multi-layer coating, from the thickness of its top layer. The higher the thickness of the linoleum, the more advanced its degree of protection against damage..
In addition, the classes stand out from the most indelible, which is designated by the letter T to F, which indicates the almost complete abrasion of the canvas..
Characteristics and differences of classes
So, a two-digit number on the package indicates the strength and durability of the material, and also indicates that, where can one or another linoleum be used:
- Class 21 intended for short-term use in living rooms. It is soft and pleasant to the touch, so it will be good to walk on it barefoot. But it is not suitable for living rooms, nurseries and hallways, which still have to withstand a certain load..
- Here will be more appropriate 22 and 23, which are considered to be more durable. They can be laid in any living space, since they can withstand even high traffic relatively easily, like in the hallway. And class 21 is better attributed to the bedroom..
- 23rd grade can be considered the best wear-resistant linoleum for the floor of an apartment or house, since it has a large thickness and is considered the most durable and durable.
- Next Class 31 linoleum is used in public institutions. It can be found in hotel rooms, reception areas and offices of company heads. It does not differ so much from household linoleum, especially at first glance, but it will serve a much longer period when visited by a large number of people..
- 32 lay in offices, kindergartens, hospitals, clothing stores. Linoleum of this class successfully copes in situations with increased load.
- It is considered even more durable Grade 33. It is located in the corridors of companies, large shopping centers, schools. This is a very durable coating that is not easy to damage. It can easily serve for over 10 years under the highest loads..
At train stations, cinemas and airports, it is recommended to choose durable and thick 34 linoleum. It is extremely durable, but does not yet belong to the production classes of the coating, which are marked as 41 and 42. They are able to withstand a lot of weight, including moving vehicles and loads.
It is important to note that these classes are only manufacturer’s recommendations for use. Even the most durable industrial linoleum can be installed in a bedroom or other living room. But this is completely impractical.
In addition, each subsequent class of coverage is much more expensive than the previous one..
Fire hazard types
The next indicator that you need to pay attention to when choosing linoleum is the fire-technical classification.
Among these categories are:
Flammability. This includes the ability of materials to ignite, the ease with which they do so, and their ability to sustain fire. This indicator is measured on a scale from 1 to 4, where 1 is the most fireproof. This factor needs to be paid special attention to when laying the floor in crowded places: in corridors, large offices, in production. It is not allowed to use it there..
Smoke generation. This parameter indicates the optical density of the smoke curtain during combustion and is calculated from 1 to 3, where 1 is the lowest density. Fire safety standards allow the use of D2 linoleum even with an evacuation route from a building, but this parameter should not be higher. In addition, when using such a material, the flame propagation speed should be low..
Flammability. The types of linoleum are divided into flammable, moderately flammable and hardly flammable. This determines how easy it is to ignite such a coating..
Toxicity combustion products. Poisoning by toxic substances during fires is one of the most common causes of death, from which about 80% of victims die. Therefore, this indicator is also worth paying attention to when buying linoleum..
Flame propagation speed on the surface. This parameter is also divided into 4 categories. It is more difficult to make accurate calculations here, because much depends on the temperature of the linoleum and in the room, the presence of wind and the flammability of the material..
It is also important that certain laying materials can increase the degree of fire hazard of linoleum, which can initially be quite low. Therefore, it is better to lay such coatings on a two-component reactive adhesive that does not contain synthetic solvents and water..
This classification plays an important role in the decoration of schools, kindergartens and other public institutions, since the employees of the Ministry of Emergency Situations have certain standards according to which they carry out sanitary and hygienic and fire checks..
When buying, you must require quality certificates, confirming the properties indicated on the package. For schools and other public institutions, flooring with indicators higher than B2, D2, T2, RP1 is allowed.
When purchasing material for the house, it also makes sense to take care of your safety. Perhaps you should pay attention to such an ultra-modern flooring material as fire-resistant linoleum. It has an extremely high fire safety record..
In any case, it is necessary to take into account the recommendations of the Ministry of Emergencies, which warn against purchasing flammable and toxic materials for your own home, even if their price seems very attractive..
The modern assortment of the flooring market provides customers with a wide range of choices. So, among the linoleums are presented:
Homogeneous. Has a homogeneous structure, and the pattern is applied to the whole mass. Regardless of the monochromatic or colored texture, such an application can ensure the preservation of a shiny appearance for a long time. Neither time nor abrasion affects this indicator..
Heterogeneous. It is considered more versatile and is used much more often. It is made up of multiple layers that provide better bounce and support. In addition, the additional substrate between the layers of linoleum can significantly increase its strength. For these purposes, the space between the PVC sheets is filled with fiberglass.
Very often, especially when laying floors in residential premises, owners want to provide additional thermal or noise insulation to the coating. In this case, the bottom layer is applied to felt or jute. They have excellent heat transfer properties and serve as an additional substrate. In addition, they provide protection against noise from neighboring apartments, which makes living much more comfortable. Their influence on the tactile sensations of residents is also important. This floor is perceived much more comfortably..
The thickness of the coating depends on the purpose for which you plan to use the room. Usually, only the thickness of the working layer is considered, that is, the upper layer on which the drawing is applied and with which people interact daily.
The simplest household linoleum has a thickness of 1 to 3 mm, semi-commercial or, in other words, office linoleum – about 5 mm, and industrial types – from 6 mm and thicker. The back side of the coating is purely functional, but you can also pay attention to it. It usually consists of foamed PVC.
This material guarantees insulation from noise, as well as heat retention, and the thicker the layer, the better these properties will be. Warm floors in the Russian climate are of paramount importance.
Due to its many positive qualities, linoleum is used for interior decoration almost everywhere. It is an extremely economical and unpretentious material. Modern technologies have made it possible to create a coating that does not change its appearance under the influence of loads and temperatures, and does not tear or stretch. It is pleasant to the touch, therefore it is a healthy competitor to parquet and laminate floors when decorating children’s and bedrooms.
The floor covering is also widely used in production. Products with a high strength class make it a frequent visitor to train stations, airports and factories, where they are exposed to enormous loads due to high traffic or heavy vehicles. No other material has the same excellent shock-absorbing properties that make it easier for vehicles in large warehouses, factories and research labs..
In addition, this material is very easy to install, which is another important plus in favor of this material. If the width of the strips is not sufficient, for example in very large rooms, they can be tightly bonded using a special hot-welding or “cold-welding” machine, that is, a special adhesive that can guarantee the same degree of strength. These joints will be almost impossible to detect with the naked eye and they will not cause any inconvenience during operation..
What to look for when choosing?
Choosing linoleum, of course, it is very important not only to focus on the wear resistance table, but also so that the appearance of the coating is liked by the inhabitant of the house or the client and that it is in harmony with the rest of the furnishings.
But there are many other, no less important parameters, including security. It is not recommended to purchase excessively toxic materials for either flooring or decoration. Arranging home repairs, it is recommended to pay attention to the formulation of the used adhesives. So, for example, serious reactive mixtures are always used for processing seams, and there is nothing to be done about it..
But if you plan, for example, to glue the entire piece of linoleum to the floor, then you can opt for less toxic compounds. They also provide a strong installation of the blade..
In addition, indicators such as flammability and combustibility are very important not only in an institution with a large number of people, but also in an ordinary apartment..
It is important to pay due attention to your comfort and do not choose too thin linoleum, especially if it is planned to be placed on a self-leveling floor. It is better to take care of a special substrate, the purpose of which is to make the house warm, and the life of the household more comfortable..
In the next video, you will receive advice on how to choose linoleum from an expert in this field..