Floors in a private house: device options and care rules

Every morning, waking up in his dwelling, a person lowers his feet to the surface with which he will be in contact all day. Regardless of what kind of dwelling it is, whether it is an apartment in a high-rise or private property, the floors in it are a three-layer structure, including a rough base, a leveling layer and a topcoat..


The floor in a private house is somewhat different from that which is mounted in an apartment. In order for it to serve long enough, it must be protected from interaction with water, that is, to perform waterproofing. Waterproofing Is an independent procedure aimed at protecting the surface from the adverse effects of moisture in the environment, which can harm any substance.


Depending on the materials used, the floors in a private house are concrete or wooden. The choice of material for the flooring depends mainly on what the walls are made of.. If the walls are wooden, then the floor is made of wood. If the walls are brick or concrete, then the floors will be made of concrete.. Often the concrete base acts as a backing for the wood flooring. Whatever type of device is used, it is important to strictly align all its layers, otherwise, an uneven surface will turn out.


The wood floor is an environmentally friendly floor with good thermal insulation properties. With good waterproofing, such a floor will last for many years.. Depending on the technologies used, a wooden floor is built:

  • on logs on the ground;
  • on support pillars;
  • on cement screed.


The concrete floor is considered, perhaps, the most impact-resistant and durable. A cement monolith, which is a concrete surface, will become an insurmountable barrier to fungus, mold and other microorganisms. Its disadvantage is that, using concrete, it is necessary to provide additional floor insulation, since concrete cools quickly, it does not keep warm at all.

Which to choose?

The preference given to a particular design depends on the purpose of the building. In the summer kitchen or in the country, which are operated in the summer season, there is no need to create complex structures. In this case, the boards are stacked on logs. Of course, such a floor will not keep warm..

In a capital house used for living all year round, it is better to use more massive structures..

If the house does not have a basement, then the most budgetary and less difficult to implement is the installation of the ground floor on the ground. In this case, two options are possible: either use a concrete base (the so-called screed), or mount multilayer wooden floors on logs.

What the floor will look like on the second floor is in direct proportion to the way the floors are arranged between floors. For wooden bases, beams and logs are used. If the floors are reinforced concrete, then only logs are used. The floor on the second floor, like on the first, can be on beams, on logs, on concrete slabs.

If the building has a basement or cellar, then the floor in it must comply with certain standards. Due to the proximity of the earth, it should be as insulated and stable as possible. The material is chosen depending on the further purpose of the operation of the room: if a living room is planned in the basement, then they prefer wood, if a workshop is created, then a concrete screed will be appropriate, and if a cellar is equipped in which supplies for the winter will be stored, then there is nothing better than clay.

In order to avoid unpleasant surprises, when arranging a cellar, it will not be superfluous to find out the depth of the groundwater.

Step by step guide

When building a country house, wooden surfaces are often preferred. This is explained by the fact that wood is an environmentally friendly material. In addition, laying such a floor is easy to do with your own hands from scratch. Installation does not take much time, there are no difficulties with repairs in the future. Poor thermal conductivity of wood will help the wood cladding to keep the house warm. Long service life and attractive, “natural” appearance will also be a big plus..

New floor

A new floor in a home starts with the choice of materials. The final result depends on the correct choice.. So, you will need:

  • Wooden beams or round timber for making logs. Lags are transverse beams on which the floor is located. In this case, the height of the section of the bar should be one and a half or even two times greater than its width.
  • Unedged board for roughing.
  • Grooved floorboard for finishing flooring.
  • Insulation material: sawdust, expanded clay or mineral wool.
  • Waterproofing materials.

Determine how many boards you need, the following example will help. Suppose it is planned to lay the floors in a room with dimensions of 5×6 m.The rail has a length of 2 m, a width of 0.13 m and a thickness of 0.05 m.For such a board, the logs are laid in increments of 1 m. Calculations are carried out according to the following algorithm:

  • The length and width of the room are multiplied to obtain its area. In this case, 6 * 5 = 30 m2.
  • Find the volume of required lumber in cubic meters, multiplying the thickness of the board in meters by the area of ​​the future floor: 30 m2 * 0.05 m = 1.5 m3.
  • Calculate the volume of one board by multiplying its length, width and thickness: 2 m * 0.05 m * 0.13 m = 0.013 m3.
  • Determine the number of boards by dividing the total volume of lumber required by the volume of one board: 1.5m3 / 0.013m3 = 115 boards.

In the same way, the amount of building material for the rough coating is determined. Since the floor surfaces in the house are subject to mechanical pressure, for their construction you need to choose high-quality wood without cracks and chips with a moisture content of up to 12%. Pine, cedar, larch are considered more suitable. Before starting work, all building materials are treated with an antiseptic and impregnated with fire retardants. A wooden floor is mounted in the following sequence:

  • Remove a layer of soil around the perimeter of the room.
  • Install support pillars.
  • Fill up gravel with a thickness of at least 10 cm.
  • Fill up a layer of sand.
  • Ram.

  • Lay roofing material or other waterproofing material on the support posts
  • Prepare lags. If round timber is used as lags, then it is necessary to cut one side.
  • Fix the lags on the support pillars.
  • Make double insulation. For this purpose, sheets of plywood are laid out on the sides of each log, on which a heat-insulating base is placed..
  • Place a rough covering, tightly fitting the boards to each other and fastening them with self-tapping screws to the logs.

  • Leave a gap of up to 2 cm between the walls and the flooring around the perimeter.It will provide ventilation and protect the walls of the house when the floor expands while it dries.
  • Place a waterproofing layer on the subfloor. To do this, you can use a thick (from 200 microns) polyethylene film. The joints of polyethylene strips are glued with wide tape, the edges are wrapped on the walls to the height of the finishing coating.
  • Install a finishing coating. If the surface of the floor in the house remains wooden, then the finishing coating is made immediately from a grooved board, which is enough to varnish. Varnish will enhance the beauty of natural wood.

If you plan to lay laminate, linoleum or other decorative material, then the expensive grooved board is replaced with cheaper plywood.

If it is required to make a floor of concrete indoors, then it is poured according to the following algorithm:

  • preparatory work.
  • Clean the primer from the top layer, compact.
  • Apply a layer of gravel, compact.
  • Pour a layer of sand, tamp.
  • Cover the entire area with a thick plastic wrap for waterproofing

  • Cement strainer.
  • Set levels.
  • If the screed is more than 5 cm in height, or it is planned to install a warm floor, then a reinforcing mesh must be laid on the waterproofing.
  • Prepare a solution consisting of cement grade not lower than M-300, screening out sand and water. Add a plasticizer to the solution for extra strength..
  • Pour in solution.
  • Align surfaces with a wall-to-door rule.
  • After the concrete has set, remove the beacons, fill their traces with the same concrete. Fill in and align all gaps.
  • Cover the floor with polyethylene and leave to dry for at least a month, periodically moistening it with water.
  • Until the concrete is completely dry, the underfloor heating must not be turned on, as this will lead to surface cracking.
  • Install the top decorative covering.
  • With full adherence to the technology, the floor will delight the owners both in the heat and in cold times, without requiring costly repairs.

    Warm cover

    The floor in the house should not only be beautiful, but also warm. Modern technologies allow at the stage of construction or renovation to install a heating system in the floor. Most often, preference is given to the following systems:

    • Cable floor using a special heating cable. The cable generates heat when electric current passes through it. The installation method depends on the type of cable (single-core, twin-core or self-regulating) used in the system. Such a floor is usually installed under the tiles..

    • Heating mat, unlike a cable floor, it does not require a cement screed. It is a thin cable attached to a synthetic mesh. A heat insulator with a reflective surface, for example, foil, is laid under the finishing coating. An expanded roll is fixed on top with tape or glue. To change the direction of the routing, it is necessary to cut the base without damaging the cable. A finishing coating is laid on top. You can use tiles, laminate and other materials.

    • Film or infrared floor is a special film capable of emitting infrared radiation when an electric current is passed through it. The film is ultra-thin, and the infrared radiation emitted by it is harmless to humans. All the advantages lie in simplicity: just spread the film and cover it with any floor covering. If several canvases are used, then they are connected with wires. Heating temperature controlled by a thermostat.

    Arrangement of floor heating using modern technologies will not only provide comfort in use, but also will not cause any particular difficulties in case of repair. All repair work is reduced to replacing a failed element or area.

    How to properly care?

    Caring for the floor should be based on the rules of caring for the material of its topcoat. The floor is one of the main elements of the interior, therefore it is important to adhere to the established requirements when choosing materials for the floor. The coverage is selected depending on the purpose of the room. For example, linoleum cannot withstand heavy loads, and parquet does not like moisture..

    The materials used for the finishing coat can be classified in different ways: hard and soft, stone and wood, synthetic and natural. Each type of material has its own styling characteristics and care methods..

    Tough materials include tiles and stone. They are durable, not afraid of moisture. Modern technologies allow tiled flooring not only in the bathroom and kitchen, as before, but also in other rooms. If desired, the tile can be easily replaced with another. Tiles can be made of natural stone: marble, granite, and if financial resources permit, then from malachite, jasper, rhodonite.

    Synthetic materials, such as, for example, vinyl, concrete, are practical, but they are afraid of humidity, temperature fluctuations, as well as chemical and mechanical influences. Floor rubber is a mixture of cement, cork, rubber, marble chips and chalk. It is flexible, durable, resistant to mechanical stress and temperature changes..

    Natural, oddly enough, is linoleum. It is made by applying a hot mixture containing resin, beeswax and linseed oil to a fabric base. Natural linoleum is an expensive but very effective material.

    The most common surface is wood. Wooden coverings are made from various types of wood. The most durable and very expensive is oak. Maple, beech, elm, ash, linden, birch, cherry, pine are also used. The modern wood material is laminate, which is represented by a multi-layer structure. It has a top layer made of wood. Laminate is easy to install, inexpensive, and looks like natural wood.

    Carpet is no less widespread now. The carpet is a pile attached to the backing. Carpets can be either synthetic, consisting of nylon or acrylic, or natural, made of silk or wool. It is easy to lay it on, and, if necessary, replace it..

    In modern conditions, it is important not only to properly cover the floors with a suitable coating, but also to know how to care for it. Even the toughest materials are sometimes susceptible to some cleaning agents.

    If the coating has a smooth surface, then it can be washed: moisten a small area of ​​the floor with water, immediately wipe it dry.

    Wooden surfaces are wiped with warm water with the addition of a neutral agent, moving in the direction in which the parquet or floorboards are laid. It is not necessary to wet the surface abundantly, especially if it is paved with parquet. It can swell from this. Use a little vinegar instead of soap. In this case, there will be no streaks on the surface. In addition, vinegar perfectly refreshes the color of the wood flooring..

    A floor made of stone, slate, ceramics is treated with a solution of warm water and a neutral agent. For unglazed tiles, replace the detergent with acetic acid. It will remove stains from the surface and make it shine evenly, muted. The slate floor is periodically rubbed with citrus oils. The marble floor is simply moistened and wiped thoroughly. Marble does not tolerate waxes and oils. It spoils from them.

    Do not wet your linoleum floor too much. After treatment with a solution of warm water with a neutral agent, it is wiped dry and then rubbed with wax.

    Vinyl and synthetic floors are perhaps the easiest to maintain. Care consists in washing with water using universal detergents and rinsing with clean water. It is necessary to monitor the composition of detergents: they should not contain solvents, otherwise the surface will become porous and rough to the touch.

    The carpet should be vacuumed at least twice a week, and if the material allows, washed twice a year using a special shampoo. If the coating is made of natural materials and cannot be washed with water, once a month it is treated with a special dry powder according to the following scheme:

    • Vacuum the surface.
    • Scatter powder over the entire area
    • After two hours, re-vacuum.

    Quality materials, modern technology and proper care – these are the three components of a good floor..

    For information on how to make a warm floor in the house without mistakes, see the next video..

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