Fence: basic types of structures

Fence: basic types of structures

The owners of private houses delimit their territory with a fence. For suburban estates, this design is of paramount importance. Many people first build a fence and then build a house. It protects the site from prying eyes and theft of building materials. When the house is built, the fence will serve the owner faithfully for many years..

Features and purpose

Fences have different purposes and look different. The protective function is performed by tall and durable structures, while decorative ones delight the eye with their graceful forms. Near a private house or summer cottage, you can find hedges made of wood, stone, brick, corrugated board and forging. Non-residential, industrial areas are fenced with concrete, metal products.

Functions of fences

Among the main ones:

  • Border designation. If they are not recorded, a dispute over territory will arise even between good neighbors. In this case, the statement is appropriate: “the higher the fence, the better the neighbors.” It will be correct to put up a fence immediately after land surveying in order to eliminate conflicts in the future. By purchasing land, you can build a solid fence. But if there are no funds, and it is necessary to designate the site, any available means will do. Anything above the ground and clearly visible can be considered a hedge. A line drawn on the ground with a shovel is not considered a fence. Borders are also built within one site to highlight a vegetable garden or isolate pets.
  • Protection. The fence becomes it for country houses, industrial and private enterprises, government agencies (schools, hospitals). The higher and stronger it is, the more reliably it performs its function. Owners of suburban areas for safety build high strong fences made of profiled sheet, brick or stone. Concrete industrial fences do not look so aesthetically pleasing, but they perform their protective properties perfectly. Fences protect from prying eyes, stray animals, wind, dust. They are able to keep small children within their yard. Carry out noise protection functions, being near highways.
  • A sense of privacy. A person should feel protected in their territory. This is not that physical security from penetration, but rather psychological, at the level of sensations. A fence around a private area makes it possible to work and relax on the site without fear of other people’s views, helps to feel like a master in your small, but very important world.

  • Decorative functions. The construction of country houses has intensified in recent decades. People prefer to work in megacities and live outside the city. Instead of a garden and a vegetable garden on the plots there is a green lawn, flowers, ornamental trees and other elements of landscape design. Sometimes the owners build tall but open fences to show the beautiful yard to their neighbors. The base and pillars are built of brick or wild stone, and the fence itself is made of openwork forged metal. Forging gives lightness to the fence, it is diverse and beautiful. Fencing in such houses should be combined with all buildings on the site. For those who have a sense of beauty, but who cannot afford a wrought-iron fence, it is quite possible to install a beautiful fence from the street side and plant climbing plants along it..

Wooden fences are unusually beautiful, but they are also expensive. Budget fences can be decorated with flowers. The hedge looks natural and aesthetically pleasing.

  • Constructions. Fences are built of different sizes and shapes, but constructively they cannot be distinguished. They all consist of load-bearing elements and sheathing. The pillars and horizontal girders make up the frame of the fence and are load-bearing structures; the sheathing of any fence is attached to them. The fence can be deaf or viewed as a chain-link mesh. The material for the fences is chosen differently: brick, stone, wood, plastic, cast-iron gratings, but the installation principle is the same for everyone.

  • The sheathing of the hedge should be in harmony with the rest of the buildings.. For example, if stone and forging are involved in the cladding of a house, garage, gazebo, garden benches, the fence will have to match the overall design. For old houses or summer cottages, you can select a hedge according to other criteria. Sometimes natural factors make their own rules. The choice of design can be influenced by soils. Sandstone, clay, and other types of soil hold supporting structures in different ways. The depth of the foundation and the severity of the product itself depend on this..
  • When building a fence, you should take into account the wind rose.. The open steppe relief assumes a heavy load, here the foundation should be strengthened. Make the fence permanent or leave gaps between the elements to increase wind resistance.
  • The design is also influenced by functional necessity.. If the fence is considered as a contour of the territory or an obstacle for children and animals, it is built low, but strong. Fencing from thieves and prying eyes is built higher than human height, stronger materials are used for it.
  • A good foundation is the key to a durable fence. It is made of two types: with the participation of pillars and tape. For the tape version, a ditch is dug, covered with rubble, a frame is installed and poured with concrete. If the fence is sectional, the pillars are set at the required distance. For a pillar foundation, there is no need to pour concrete around the perimeter of the fence. It is enough to dig holes half a meter deep at a distance of the length of the hedge spans. Each pillar is measured with a level and filled with cement.

Types of materials

The market offers all kinds of materials for installing a fence: from expensive forged gratings to budget options from a chain-link mesh. When purchasing a hedge, you should immediately think about which gate and wicket it will be equipped with.

Better to buy everything together to keep the same style..

Brick, wild stone, or wood will cost more. You can save money and build a high fence using slate panels, and over time it turns out that fragile material requires frequent repairs. In order not to be mistaken in the choice, we will try to consider in more detail the types of materials.


Wood is one of the most ancient building materials. The centuries-old practice of working with it and the accumulated experience have helped to develop and improve many options for fences: from a simple picket fence to expensive carved products. Wood, like any other material, has its positive and negative sides.. The positive ones include:

  • In our country, wood is readily available and affordable..
  • The natural structure of the tree makes it pleasant to be near it. If you put a bench in the shade of a high fence, rest will be more complete than against a wall made of corrugated board.
  • Wood is the softest building material. It is easy to work with, so wood carvers create their masterpieces from it..
  • Wooden fences are able to surprise with the possibilities of the color palette. Even unpainted fences made from different plant species look different. It is enough to treat them with wood stain or special impregnations to emphasize the structure of the tree. Lovers of bright hedges can use paint.

As for the negative sides, there are few of them, but for the sake of fairness it should be said about them:

  • the fence is not durable, since the wood is exposed to the influence of the environment;
  • annual care: the fence will have to be painted or treated with insect repellents;
  • lends itself to mechanical stress, breakage, which reduces the protective properties of the fence and increases the cost of repair.

Having evaluated the advantages and disadvantages for an objective choice of material, you need to understand the types of structures:

  • Fence – a fence, which consists of wooden planks parallel to each other. It can be lattice, of various sizes and shapes, both natural tones and colored. It is easy to decorate with carvings or drawings. It is beautiful, airy, but has no special protective function..
  • Palisade – a fence made of wooden stakes, which are tightly driven to each other. Top edges are sharpened like a pencil for increased protective properties.
  • Wattle – the most economical fence, it is made of wicker branches. It was widely used in the old days. It can be horizontal, when the twigs are intertwined through the pillars driven into the ground, and vertical – when the branches are standing in a hedge..

  • Fence-ranch came to us from American pastoralists. The structure requires less material than a solid fence. It is made from unedged board or timber. Used for cattle corral. There are also more cultivated types of hedges: they consist of even painted boards. They are placed in places where decorative fences are needed. Ranch fences are characterized by horizontal slats that are attached to vertical supports.
  • Board fence consists of vertically lined boards of the same length, fixed to horizontal rungs. It differs from a picket fence with a solid sheathing. Such fences can be of great height, which makes it possible to protect areas from prying eyes..

Metal models

Metal fences are used for different purposes and they cost differently. Mesh is one of the cheapest materials. In the private sector, they are used for protective purposes, not relying on protection and privacy. The most expensive structures are wrought iron products: they are made by hand at the request of the customer. Such fences have an expensive and presentable look..

Corrugated board

The profiled sheet is a metal sheet with corrugations. It is they who make the material resistant. It is used for fencing private and industrial areas. High fences made of corrugated board hide the yard from prying eyes. It protects against thieves, but under strong mechanical stress it can be destroyed: it can be cut, cut with an ax. This functional material has many advantages:

  • it is lightweight, self-assembled;
  • durable, its service life is up to 50 years;
  • the fence is easy to care for;
  • fire resistant;
  • if damaged, the sheet can be replaced without much difficulty;
  • thanks to a special coating, resistant to environmental influences;
  • a large selection of colors allows you to combine with the material of the roof of a house or other buildings;
  • a high fence protects from dust, wind, stray animals and uninvited guests;
  • acceptable price.

The disadvantages are also worth paying attention to:

  • rustic appearance;
  • in case of violation of the antimicrobial layer, the material begins to gradually deteriorate under the influence of the external environment;
  • able to deform with a strong impact;
  • heated by the sun.

When choosing profiled sheets for the fence, you can order the same material for wickets and gates.

Metal grid

Today mesh is one of the most economical materials. It is used for land surveying. The product is produced in different sizes: with several types of cells, vinyl or galvanized coating. The most durable is the galvanized steel mesh. With proper care, a hedge can last up to thirty years.. There are several types of metal mesh:

  • Chain-link. It is made of wire, has a different thickness, mesh size and coating (for painting, polymer, galvanized). It is easy to mount by welding or nailing it to the supports. You can buy ready-made modular structures on frames and install between poles. Plants grow beautifully near the fence, as it does not cast a shadow. The size of the structure is high enough, it will not be possible to jump over it.
  • Corrugated. Consists of bent wire up to 0.8 mm thick. The perpendicular weaving of the mesh provides special strength, therefore, it can be pulled between the supports, standing at a distance of five meters (for the chain-link – three meters).
  • Welded. Such a mesh is more expensive than corrugated and chain-link. It looks attractive and easy to install..

If climbing plants are planted along the fence, the unsightly metal mesh will turn into a blooming hedge..

Welded steel structures

Cast or stamped parts are welded onto the prepared frames, forming an independent pattern. This type of fence is inferior in appearance to forged, but it is easier to manufacture and it costs less.. Among the disadvantages – difficulties in painting.

The fence made of galvanized bar does not need to be painted, it is welded from steel parts coated with polymer and is protected from corrosion.

Wrought iron

Forged products are elegant, unusual, they are an adornment of landscape design, perform protective and decorative functions, inform about the tastes and wealth of the owner. A carved fence goes well with modern brick or wild stone, it is combined with corrugated board, polycarbonate. The laboriousness of manual work and difficult painting raise forged fences to the rank of the most expensive.

They are tall, have good protective functions, but the transparency of openwork forging cannot protect from prying eyes.. Sometimes respectable homeowners install them on purpose to show off the landscaping of their site..

Fences with forged elements are divided into three groups – utilitarian (practical categories), decorative and intermediate:

  • Utilitarian hedges serve to protect the site, there are practically no decorative elements on them, and if they are, then they are exclusively stamped. They are produced by the cold forging method: parts are bent and twisted on special equipment, then welded into certain sections. Stamped fences are less expensive and available to many homeowners.
  • Decorative works are often ordered individually. They are created by art forging masters who have been developing skills over the years. When creating such fences, welding work is minimized: parts are connected using clamps and rivets, stamping is not allowed, all elements are made by hand. Exclusive products become real works of art and are very expensive.
  • Intermediate types in terms of the complexity of manufacture and price category are between utilitarian and decorative. Welding is partially involved in such structures, artistic elements are present, but to a greater extent they are stamped. Products look decorative, have all the functionality and are cheaper than artistic forging.

High forged fences are built around the perimeter of the site, inside the yard, low fences are used as borders, they are allocated to flower beds, lawns and other elements of landscape design. Forging, like other hedges, has its advantages:

  • amazing beauty of the product;
  • the exclusivity of highly artistic forging, which makes it possible to produce it according to the customer’s project;
  • forged products are strong and durable, they are resistant to strong mechanical stress;
  • the height of the fence allows him to cope with his protective functions;
  • a hedge made in accordance with all the rules and covered with an antibacterial layer and paint does not require careful maintenance, it is enough to paint over scratches in a timely manner.

As for the shortcomings, they also exist and you should be aware of them:

  • the high cost of the product makes it inaccessible;
  • if a special layer is damaged, corrosion occurs;
  • long manufacturing process;
  • such a fence cannot protect from prying eyes, wind, dust and noise, unless professional sheets are used in the creation of the fence.

Stone and brick

Fences made of stone and brick look solid and beautiful, and if you add wrought iron structures to them with openwork ornaments, hedges become fantastically effective. Fences made of stone and brick are made thoroughly and need a strip reinforced concrete foundation. Such a structure will stand for at least half a century. He will not be afraid of any weather conditions.

For a cottage and a blockhouse built of brick, fences of the same material will be needed so as not to violate the style of the site.

Brick fences

Brick by color, structure, size and frost resistance brands are divided into three types: clinker, ceramic red and silicate white. The material should be chosen according to the technical characteristics intended for those climatic conditions in which the masonry will be located. For the construction of a fence, a special dry mixture is used, which during installation does not leave marks on the surface of the product. When working with clinker bricks, you can choose a mortar of a suitable color from sixteen existing types.

Brick blocks made under chipped bricks are especially in demand today..

Fences made of this material have a number of positive characteristics:

  • they do not need unnecessary care and annual coloring;
  • a reliable structure protects from wind and dust, is able to withstand any natural conditions;
  • the fence is strong if it is laid out in one brick, and the thickness of three bricks will withstand even a blow from a car;
  • a blank fence creates an atmosphere of privacy;
  • decorative types of fences, especially those combined with wood, stone or forging, give out good taste and material capabilities of the owner;
  • brickwork is durable and can last for several generations;
  • the security functions of the fence depend on its height and shape: the higher and wider the structure, the safer it is.

Of the shortcomings, we can say about the high cost of the fence. Installation takes longer than other types of fencing. Brick is a versatile building material that is used in many areas. As for country houses, he can participate not only in the construction of a cottage, but also in all buildings on the site, up to benches, garden paths and borders for flower beds..

Brick fences are built capital, using concrete blocks. Monolithic fences exclude the participation of concrete and are traditionally made of bricks. Despite the uniformity of the structure, they do not look boring. You can diversify them with blocks of different colors, lay out an ornament or change tones in a checkerboard pattern, equip with visors. Decorated with arches and niches for flowerpots, fences acquire lightness and become part of landscape design.

The versatility of bricks allows you to make combined fences. You can achieve a variety of forms by building fences with the participation of various building materials. The most expensive ones combine brickwork and wrought iron. Forging is handcrafted and has artistic value. You can reduce the cost of such products by using stamped elements..

Wooden inserts go well with a brick wall. They are beautiful and distinctive, you can feel the design intent in them. Such a fence has protective functions..

Particularly strong are brick fences combined with stone. Psychologically, behind such a fence you can feel like in a fortress. The hedge looks amazingly impressive, combining the clear geometry of the brick and the free outlines of the stone.

Fences made of stone

For the arrangement of dwellings, stone was used by ancient people. This gives reason to consider it the oldest building material. Such a fence will never rot; corrosion will not spoil it. Frost, wind, rain and hail will not harm him in any way. The stone combines well with other building materials, it is architecturally expressive and fits into any landscape design. A large number of varieties of stone will allow you to choose it according to the taste of the customer. Here are some examples of the most popular ones:

  • Boulder stone (cobblestone) is the most affordable and durable material, sold mainly in gray shades.
  • Limestone has varieties: marbled, bryozoan and shell rock. It is a soft, pliable material that is easy to work with. The disadvantage is the instability to moisture. Pre-treatment with water repellent helps.
  • Sandstone has long been used for fencing, it is moisture resistant, strong and not susceptible to frost.
  • Dolomite is mined in mountain pits, it is flat and different in thickness. Fences made of this material are strong and reliable..
  • The booth has no pronounced shape, it is mined from dolomites, limestones and sandstones. It is popular as a facing material, but it can also serve as the basis for a fence. The rubble product looks original and solid, but its installation is quite complicated and requires the work of a professional bricklayer with a special tool..
  • Gravel is often used in fences alone and in combination with bricks, as well as combining large stone with small.
  • Artificial stone is very popular: it is made on the basis of concrete with the addition of pigment paints. It is difficult to distinguish the type of these products from natural materials..

Stone fences have the same advantages as brick fences. They are strong, reliable, durable, environmentally friendly, they are not afraid of fires. A wide range of prices makes them affordable for people with different incomes.

When erecting a fence, a linear foundation is required, a preliminary study of groundwater and atmospheric precipitation.

The stone combines well with other types of materials. In combination with a tree, it looks especially harmonious: such a hedge in a suburban area completely dissolves in the natural environment.

The most popular is stone in combination with brickwork. He is involved in the construction of pillars and the foundation of the fence.

Recently, fences equipped with a stone in nets began to appear. The so-called gabions and pergons. These two types have a fundamental difference: the gabion rests on its massive base due to its own weight, for example, a structure more than two meters high must have a base of at least one meter. For pergons, racks are made as for a regular fence, which hold the structure.

Mesh containers are made from thick wire in factories, delivered to the construction site and already there filled with stones (gravel, crushed stone, pebbles, and others). Installation is easy: even one person can handle it. If desired, the structure is dismantled and assembled in a new place. With the help of nets of different sizes, the filling fence can have various shapes. The stone “comes to life” if you plant climbing plants next to it. Such a fence will organically merge with the natural landscape..

There are narrow and low mini-pergons, they are used inside the site, for example, for the walls of gazebos. With their help, they delimit flower beds, zone the territory, carry out various design ideas.

Gabions and pergons have a lot of advantages: they are strong, durable, able to change their design according to the designer’s idea, they are easy to dismantle and place in another place..

Fencing made of mesh with fillers is combined with wood and brick.

Artificial stone is difficult to distinguish from natural; it is presented on the market in three types:

  • Porcelain stoneware produced from clay and mineral additives under very high pressure with the participation of high temperatures. Outwardly similar to ceramic tiles, only much stronger. Used for outdoor use, but sometimes used indoors..
  • Agglomerates polyester resin is taken as a basis, crumbs of natural stone are added to it. Produced mainly for the production of furniture.
  • In building artificial stone concrete is used for wall cladding. Various crumbs are added to it (expanded clay, pumice, coloring pigment). The solution is poured into molds to simulate natural stone, then subjected to vibration and pressure. Artificial stone is difficult to distinguish from natural.

Amazing fences are made from such material. There are fences made for chipped stone from Besser blocks. In terms of strength, such fences are inferior to natural material, but they are just as good and aesthetic..

Made of polycarbonate and plastic

Polycarbonate is a synthetic polymer based on carbon. It is one of the latest developments in building technology. It is a beautiful transparent material, flexible and durable, with a wide range of colors. It is used in the construction of greenhouses, greenhouses, for the manufacture of canopies and fences. The panels are soundproof and act as protective screens. Such a fence is indispensable near highways..

For hedges on the site, polycarbonate is used as the main and combined material with metal, wood, brick. The openwork forging pattern is beautifully filled with an airy polymer. The material is lightweight, resistant to weather conditions, does not fade in the sun, resists shock.

Despite the fact that the polymer is 80 percent transparent, it is impossible to clearly see what is happening behind the fence, all outlines are blurred. A large selection of shades allows you to choose it to match the buildings in the estate.

Installation is somewhat difficult, since it requires the participation of high temperatures. Polycarbonate sheets are flexible and lightweight, they can break off in strong winds, so installation should be done with special responsibility.

Slate fences

Slate fences are often installed in summer cottages when the roof is changed and it becomes possible to save money on the fence. If you buy a new slate, it will look good as a hedge, it can be painted to match the color of the roof or walls of the house. Slate does not rot, does not burn, protects from wind and dust, but has its drawbacks. It is fragile to mechanical stress, weighs a lot, turns black from damp. It cannot be called environmentally friendly due to the presence of asbestos.

Wave slate is fastened with an overlap on horizontal wooden beams connecting the fence posts. Flat insert into metal frame or corners.

From scrap materials

There is an opinion that a fence can be built from anything, one has only to take a closer look at the environment, and the people have enough imagination and creativity:

  • The hedge of two-liter plastic bottles looks interesting. They are installed in five rows and fastened between wooden posts. These sections should be enough for the entire fence..
  • The most popular improvised means that our ancestors still used are branches and reeds. They make wonderful wattle fence that can decorate any site..

  • Wooden pallets are used as a fence: they are painted and installed in dachas, getting an imitation of a ranch fence.
  • Fences in the form of a woodpile are peculiar: they look beautiful and there is a supply of firewood in the winter. Logs can be placed in gabions or fixed in any convenient way.

So out of nothing, almost from garbage, a beautiful structure in the form of a fence appears, which surprises with its ingenuity..


The main task of the fence is a protective and separating function, but a simple laconic fence looks boring. If the owner is an esthete, he will make the fence amazing, and for a person with a sense of humor, the fence will be fun and creative..

There are different ways of decorating a fence: lanterns, flowerpots, figurines, forged elements, original colors, colored glass, garden plants are used in the design. A low air fence made of wooden planks with alternating stained glass and through voids looks beautiful.

The easiest way to decorate a fence is to let the climbing plants do it themselves.. This is an indispensable solution for the netting netting.

Flowers will help not only hide the unsightly structure, but also hide the yard from prying eyes.

Decking was originally used for industrial enterprises, and today it has firmly entered the life of the private sector. To make the canvas attractive, paintings are painted on it: from small patterns to complex subject images. For greater effect, the profiled sheet is alternated with brick pillars. Black edging will give it elegance, and if you paint the material like wood or brown brick, it will be very difficult to find out what the fence is made of..

The color of the fence is of great importance.. It should be in harmony with the roof and facade of the house.. For example, a blue fence works well with the gray walls of a building. The palisade along the contour of the playground can be painted with all the colors of the rainbow. The elegant white color of a concrete hedge (“eurofence”) requires frequent maintenance, and by painting it in different shades, you can get a beautiful and practical fence.

A pompous stone fence with brick inserts is decorated with front lanterns, if the same decorate the front entrance of the house. A beautiful but expensive solution is to decorate the fence with arches with sculptural figures inserted into them.

A fence can tell a lot about its owner. At first glance, you understand who lives behind him: hardworking, or lazy, with wealth, good taste or with a sense of humor.

Selection Tips

The land owner needs to understand what functions the fence should have. A chain-link mesh is enough to mark the boundaries. A high, durable fence made of brick or stone will give you a sense of security. A hedge made of corrugated board can protect, but it is not as reliable as a stone, and is a budget option. A beautiful and relatively inexpensive concrete fence is suitable for the protective function. It can be both deaf and open, light, decorative.

Concrete fences are produced in a wide range of colors with embossed patterns. Aesthetes need highly artistic fences with forging or wood carving.

Having found out the practical component, you should pay attention to the combination of the fence with the estate and the house. Therefore, when choosing a building material for a fence, the style of landscape design is taken into account.. Let’s try to understand this issue:

  • Style high tech in the design of personal plots became known not so long ago. With its innovation, it differs from other styles. Such a site should have everything the most modern: smart irrigation, lighting, as well as a pool and unusual buildings made of ultra-fashionable materials. Glass, metal and wood are used in the decoration of the garden and the fence. Decorations are strict, no frills: everything should give out a new generation garden.
  • As opposed to hi-tech with its know how, style provence enchants with the simplicity and naturalness of village life. Only natural materials are used. The gazebo is made of stone and poorly processed wood.

Only soft colors are involved in the design of the fence and all buildings: white, blue, gray, pink.

  • Landscape design in traditional style restrained, with clear straight shapes, shrubs are trimmed, garden paths are even, straight. The fences are light, no frills, but small sculptures are allowed.
  • Style modern – the complete opposite of the traditional. No straight lines, everything is smooth and natural. Fence sections can be of different heights and go around the site with roundings, without strict rules.

It is impossible to describe all the styles, but it is quite acceptable to talk about the combination of the style of the landscape plot and the fence..

Beautiful examples

Fences have not only a protective function, but also a decorative one. When you see intricate beautiful fences, you involuntarily think that an even more magnificent view awaits behind the gate. To avoid disappointment, you must adhere to the main rule of landscape design: the fence should not be more beautiful than the cottage and the local area. The ideas of some fences are striking in their originality:

  • A fence made of wooden planks is decorated with applied flowers, highlighted by contrast stripes.
  • Fencing in the Art Nouveau style. Every detail of the fence has been lovingly processed and rounded. In this case, the fence turned out to be more magnificent than the buildings that are visible behind it..
  • A masterpiece of design art. A high, but at the same time, air fence with arches and separate curves resembles a labyrinth. It seems that everyone will find a secluded place here, but the transparency of the walls does not make it too personal..

  • If you properly organize a fence made of corrugated board, it can decorate even a wealthy estate.
  • An example of a combined stone fence with openwork forging and decorated lanterns.
  • Artistic unique forging created by a professional. A fence with a gate forms a single canvas of the master’s creation.

  • Fence made of natural stone with peaks and decorative pictorial insert.
  • The place for rest and cooking barbecue is decorated with gabions with different fillings.
  • Gabions with cacti. The fence is conditional, but the combination of wood, stone and living plants looks perfect.

  • A fence made of old wheels can be used to decorate a site in a loft or rustic style.
  • An original fence made of brooms is a beautiful solution for a country house or a country estate.
  • A fence made of simple, correctly selected material looks elegant and beautiful.

These examples of original hedges will help to turn on the imagination and reflect on what is hidden behind the fence..

How to make a fence from corrugated board with your own hands, see the video below.

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