Lighting is an important component of any interior. With its help, you can change any room beyond recognition, create volumetric effects, change visual perception.
If the lighting standards in the room are observed, the person is comfortable in it, he gets tired less and feels better. Bright or, conversely, dim lighting has a negative effect on the human body. The light level depends on the room and the position of the light source. It is measured in suites. And the flow rate is in lumens. Its value can be found on the packaging, measured using special devices (instrumental method) or calculated independently (geometric). A light source with a flux of 1 lumen creates an illumination of 1 lux per square meter.
The consequence of exceeding the indicators may be:
- Unpleasant sensations in the eyes (dryness, sting) and redness of the mucous membrane;
- Excitation of the nervous system, irritability, muscle tension.
If the standards are lowered, the first to suffer are:
- organs of vision (up to the appearance of hyperopia and myopia);
- the psychological state worsens (this can lead to the manifestation of various kinds of depression, neuroses, relapses of existing diseases);
- as a result of prolonged exposure, hormonal disruption is possible, which leads to disruptions in the endocrine and other body systems.
Therefore, lighting standards must be carefully controlled. If a person feels well and does not notice changes in mood or body, it means that the norms of the luminous flux are being observed.. They differ for different premises:
- on the stairs – 20;
- in the bathroom – 50;
- in the back rooms, corridor, lobby, storeroom – 50;
- in the dressing room – 75;
- in the bedroom, living room, kitchen – 150;
- in the children’s room – 200;
- in the office, library, room with a computer – 300.
To find out if the illumination indicator in a particular part of the apartment complies with building codes and regulations, you must:
- Multiply the rate for this room by the area indicator.
- The luminous flux of each light source multiplied by their number.
- Compare these two values.
- Make a conclusion. If there is an excess or deficit, then some adjustment must be made. For example, reduce or increase the number of light sources or select a lower (higher) power for each of them, respectively..
Taking these features into account, it is possible to create optimal conditions for work and rest and eliminate additional health threats..
Light in the form of electromagnetic waves visible to the eye and transformed by the visual analyzer is an indispensable condition for human life.. Indoor (that is, used indoors) lighting is divided into:
- Natural – radiation from the sun and its diffuse reflection in the atmosphere;
- Artificial – the radiation of various devices capable of converting different types of energy;
- General – a combination of natural and artificial;
- Zonal – to illuminate a specific section of the living space;
- Decorative, mainly serving as decoration.
Natural has a number of the following positive characteristics:
- it is beneficial from an economic point of view, since it allows more rational use of not only the energy resources of the Earth, but also it is expedient to distribute the funds of an individual or family;
- most suitable for the organs of vision;
- does not cause the discomfort of certain electrical devices.
Light sources are natural objects or phenomena, such as the sun and other space objects (comets, stars, interstellar gas), aurora, lightning, bio- and radioluminescence.
To determine whether the lighting meets the requirements of SanPiN, it is necessary to calculate the ratio of indoor to outdoor illumination. The resulting coefficient should become a kind of evaluation criterion. Depending on the location of the holes for the penetration of such lighting the following types are distinguished:
- side (it includes openings of windows and doors);
- top (direct and scattered rays enter the room with the help of a transparent roof and skylights, which can be made in a pyramidal, hemispherical shape or in the form of a transparent dome);
- mixed (combined).
A significant disadvantage of such lighting is its unevenness, depending on:
- time of year and day;
- cloudiness and atmospheric conditions.
And if we cannot change the weather, and a change in geographic location due to the move seems to be a radical solution, you can use some recommendations:
- First of all, it is necessary to redevelop the premises – demolition of partitions, expansion of openings and passages, replacement of transparent ceilings and wall panels with transparent ones. This requires a certain agreement in special organizations and the investment of additional funds..
- Replacing a blank sheet of balcony, interior and entrance doors with a sheet with plastic or glass inserts full-length or partially will be less costly and time-consuming..
- Balcony structures should be replaced with new ones with higher permeability.
- If we are talking about a private house, you can reduce the height of the fence or make it through.
In addition, it often happens that closely spaced shrubs or trees can cause darkening in a room. In this case, you can trim the crown, cut branches or remove part or all of the trunk. You should not do this on your own, as administrative responsibility may follow. Contact the management company or the state housing inspectorate. You can call specialists from the SES and ask for an opinion on your apartment. The same should be done if you are not satisfied with other temporary structures in front of your windows. With permanent structures, for example, residential buildings, it will be almost impossible to change the situation..
Artificial lighting is a complex system of devices that includes all the lighting fixtures in the house. The main distinguishing feature of such light sources is that they are man-made. In addition, they differ from natural ones in the length and color of the emitted waves. Nevertheless, they are quite comfortable for the organs of vision, subject to all the rules and regulations. Their main advantage is independence from temporal and spatial factors, that is, it can be used both at night and during the day, in any weather and in any geographic location.
There are several ways to organize artificial lighting:
- directional (a specific section of the square is illuminated);
- reflected from the surface;
- scattered (evenly distributed in different directions, for example, an ordinary light bulb without a lampshade);
- mixed (for example, a device with three multidirectional lamps).
The main component of artificial lighting is lamps. They can differ in shape, size, amount of consumed energy, radiation power. Thanks to the latest technical developments, all new types with improved characteristics appear.. However, the main varieties are:
- Incandescent lamps are the classic option most often used at home. Their popularity is due to their affordable price and ease of manufacture and use..
- Halogen – differ from conventional incandescent lamps in that they contain a special halogen gas, which contributes to a brighter glow.
- LED – their power is limited, so they are used as a local light source. High price corresponds to long service life.
- Luminescent – they are a sprayed flask filled with mercury vapor. In everyday life, they are less common, as they flicker and make noise.
- Energy saving – modified fluorescent model. Beneficial due to high light output despite the risk of mercury release if damaged.
Common (also called central, or upper) affects a separate room or an entire apartment. It has a number of features:
- The location of light sources on the ceiling of the room provides uniform illumination;
- The lack of contrasting shadows is not harmful to health;
- Allows you to combine parts of the room into one whole – in this case, the interior does not look scattered, but looks like a single whole.
This view can have several options for the location of the lamps:
- Suspended (using a chandelier). This is the most common option, due to the fact that due to the peculiarities of building technologies, there was only one outlet for lighting fixtures on the ceiling. As a rule, it was located in the center. This kind of option is still used today, as it helps to avoid material costs. A modern chandelier can have not one, but several lamps and have a rather original shape. Although this option is conservative, it still remains the most popular and affordable..
- Mixed (with a chandelier and spotlights) – this option is suitable for a stretch or false ceiling.
- Mortise and overhead (with point) – they can be located both along the perimeter of the room, evenly over the entire area of the ceiling, or in a certain sequence. It is used for tension, suspended, cassette and rack types of finishes.
Zonal – affects some specific part of the room. It is usually used in two cases:
- when there is not enough lighting for some specific work (for example, on a writing table, a make-up mirror, an element of decor, a painting);
- as a zoning tool – for visual highlighting on a functional basis (to separate the dining room from the kitchen).
Depending on the method of attachment – to a wall or furniture, local lamps can be:
- overhead – installed without violating the integrity of the surface directly on furniture, wall or ceiling;
- mounted – with the help of special devices for mounting, take up more space;
- mortise – characterized by the complexity of installation, but they take up little space on the same level with the surface.
According to the position they occupy in space, they distinguish:
- wall-mounted – installed on a wall or other partition;
- floor-standing – take up more space, but do not require any installation;
- desktop – save space in the space of the room, no special skills are required to install them.
There are stationary and portable lamps. The latter are certainly more practical, as they can move. For floor-standing heavy models, casters are preferable. However, due to their design, they can illuminate a much smaller area..
As a rule, in everyday life, pure lighting is extremely rare. Basically, the types are combined depending on the needs. For example, the general is complemented by the local. This is the only way to create a comfortable and cozy atmosphere in the house. Decorative lighting was previously considered overkill, as it usually does not carry any functional load. Nowadays, it is given much more importance, since the desire to stand out prompts to find more and more original design solutions. Since this requires certain costs, this design method cannot be called often used..
The purpose of using any decor is to make the room especially attractive, therefore, the quantitative characteristics of lighting devices are not important. However, too strong contrasts, bright color boundaries can affect the mental and physical condition of the people living. Hence, another feature follows – such lighting, if it does not comply with the standards, should be temporary. In this case, the general can be constant, it will also act as a kind of background.
The light sources here are:
- LED and neon lamps;
- light cords;
- illumination of stained-glass windows, niches and cornices.
If the tenants have creativity, it is possible to decorate on their own, since the above devices do not require complex installation. Such lighting looks especially impressive at night without background lighting..
Design and shapes
With the help of properly organized lighting, you can travel back to a particular era. The Gothic style of the Middle Ages is more suitable for spacious rooms. Their distinctive feature was the special shape of door and window openings and wrought iron lamps. The reflected light from the stained glass windows creates an extraordinary visual effect. In the modern interpretation, it is not necessary to use candles, as there are special shaped lamps..
Baroque uses chandeliers and wall lamps without shades, since their main purpose, in addition to decorating the room, is to illuminate rather large apartments. Gilded, silver plated, brass, copper metal curved parts and processed glass are used as decoration.
Classicism more restrained in terms of decor. Beautiful, correct, straight, clear lines look status and at the same time solemn.
Modern minimalistic the interior, functional and sustained in a narrow range of colors, will be complemented by lamps with opaque or matte shades in the interior color. And the ability to change the direction of the luminous flux will be a practical addition.
Any discreet interior can be brought to life with decorative lighting. The backlight can combine spotlights with LED or gas discharge cords. A striking example of this is the style high tech.
The originality of the forms and the unusual combination of different light sources include eclecticism.
Scandinavian style, a distinctive feature of which is a light interior, can be supplemented with overhead or suspended versions, original shapes of shades or lamps.
Zip in an African or oriental interior you can use lighting fixtures. The illumination of niches looks especially original – this gives the oriental interior an atmosphere of mystery and sophistication. Ethnic stylization will appeal to travel lovers, it will always look original and will not leave anyone indifferent.
Do not underestimate the effect of light color on a person. It will not cause great damage to health, but it can affect mood, emotions – relax or, conversely, give vigor. To find out what color this or that radiation will be, it is enough to pay attention to the packaging. Color temperature is measured in Kelvin and is indicated by a capital letter K. To make it clearer, you can use special tables with the ranges of these values and the corresponding shades..
In everyday life, three main ones can most often be found:
- Warm white with a yellow tint (matches natural sunlight in the morning or evening). It is emitted by incandescent, halogen, fluorescent lamps. Has a calming effect on the nervous system, therefore ideal for bedrooms and other recreation areas.
- Neutral white (corresponding to daytime). It can be called universal in its application, it also combines well with natural light sources..
- Cool white with a blue tint is mostly used in offices, schools and other educational institutions. Creates a working mood, helps to get ready, stimulates the brain. LED and fluorescent lamps are suitable for it..
In addition to the above indicated shades, light can be of any color.. This is accomplished in two ways:
- by applying color spraying to the flask – this applies to all types of lamps;
- for gas-discharge lamps – by pumping into the tube or bulb of various gases capable of emitting rays of different intensities.
Another important indicator is the color rendering index. It is not indicated on all products, but if you do not attach importance to it, you can get an unpleasant distorted light. Low values (less than 80) turn bright colors into dull, dirty with a gray tint.
A huge number of electrical appliances and devices need to be properly organized. The development of electronics has led to the fact that such devices are now controlled by special devices. Of course, it is necessary to think about how this process will be carried out at the stage of repair. This will require certain financial costs, perhaps physical strength and time, but a well-thought-out control system compensates you for these efforts. And even about the importance of comfort in everyday life, when even insignificant ill-considered trifles will interfere with rest every day, and there is nothing to say. So, there are two types of control:
Local is done by switching devices, which are usually located inside houses, near the entrance or exit, and sometimes outside. Such devices are switches, sensor controls, circuit breakers.
Switches are subdivided into:
- photo relay;
- with motion sensors.
You can find control from several places (most often two or three). Such switches are called cross or pass-through. The advantage of such a system is practicality, convenience and electricity savings. For example, if the room is a walk-through, it is wiser to place one switch at the entrance and the second at the exit. Or place them near the door and places where the person rests or sleeps. Moreover, one device can control a group of lamps or only some specific. In addition to the above, control can be of two types:
- manual (the impact is carried out directly by residents or employees);
- automatic (this happens regardless of people using a timer or sensors that respond to the change of time of day, movement).
Remote control is provided by special equipment that can be located at a considerable distance. It is divided into:
- controlled from the switchboard;
- wired with devices;
- wireless – using various control panels, radio switches or devices with special software (smartphones, tablets, computers, etc.).
The main advantage of such systems is the ability to control from anywhere in a room or apartment. And with the help of the World Wide Web – even from another country. In fact, it is also the most vulnerable point, since without a remote control or a smartphone it will be simply impossible to influence the lighting in the house..
We take into account the type of room and its decoration
When choosing the finishing of the ceiling, walls and floor, first of all, it is necessary to consider which side the windows face. If to the north, then light warm colors should prevail in the interior (they have the best reflectivity). The atmosphere of comfort will be created by textile, embossed surfaces and warm soft light..
If to the south or west, then you can use any color, including the cold spectrum. In bright interiors, you should especially watch out for color distortion. For example, warm yellowish radiation can give a blue color a green tint..
To improve the natural light of the attic floor with sloping walls and other darkened rooms, you can use transparent walls or, in the case of a wooden private house, a glass roof. This idea applies not only to the attic, but also to other darkened rooms..
For rooms with a low ceiling, it is necessary to use recessed and surface mounted luminaires. If you still use a chandelier, make sure it is at a sufficient distance from the floor. A sloped ceiling requires special design. Of course, spotlights will be more convenient, but if you chose a chandelier on a bracket, for aesthetics, you need to ensure that they are on the same level.
A suspended multi-tiered ceiling, as well as niches in the walls, will look especially impressive with lighting. With the help of local lighting (for example, light cornices, wall sconces, table lamps), you can zoning a studio apartment.
Properly organized interior lighting can radically change and even expand the space of an apartment. This requires light, preferably glossy surfaces that will reflect light. Lamps in this case should be multidirectional, with transparent shades, or better without them..
To determine which light source is needed in a given room, it is necessary to determine what functions it will perform. If such sources are electric lighting devices, then it is necessary to draw up a detailed diagram. Moreover, if there are several such products. There are several options:
- If zoning is necessary, you can use a large number of lamps – table, floor and wall sconces. The main thing is that they are all made in the same style and fit into the interior..
- If the room is small and does not need local lighting – with one large lamp.
- Mixed. Moreover, he can combine several lamps on the ceiling, or dividing them into levels. This option allows you to turn on a certain level, part of the devices or all devices together..
The second nuance that you need to pay attention to is the ability to install the lamps you have chosen. Not all ideas can be realized due to technical characteristics (for example, inconsistencies in the cross-section of wires and cables). Since the features of installation, use and management are different for each type, it is better to consult a specialist about this..
It is important to strike a balance between aesthetics and practicality. To do this, consider example options for how lighting might look in different rooms..
In the living room, you can just apply a multi-level scheme. When the whole family gets together or when guests meet, all devices are activated. If there is no need for such festive illumination, you can leave some part on.
In the kitchen, in addition to background light, illumination above the work surface is required. In addition, you can highlight the bar area with decorative lighting. If the table is in the kitchen, it is better to place the main light source above it..
Hidden light, bedside lamps, wall sconces are used for the bedroom. This will create a special atmosphere and help you sleep, relax or unwind..
Lamps covered with opaque or opaque lampshades are suitable for a children’s room. Here, aesthetics are preferable to safety and practicality, as well as compliance with all norms and standards. If the child has already gone to school, it is necessary to place additional electrical appliances next to the desk..
The hallway is a kind of face of the house, so it is especially important that the lighting is effective. For safety reasons, it is better to place battery-operated or rechargeable emergency lights on the stairs..
Watch the related video.