Building a gazebo: nuances and manufacturing tips
To date, summer cottages or household territories have lost their value as a place for planting and growing agricultural crops. The current market situation is unlikely to save money on growing tomatoes, cucumbers, potatoes, berries and other vegetables or fruits. Of greater interest is the site as a place for recreation or an aesthetic decoration of leisure.
A gazebo can play an important role in the design of a summer cottage. It can be both a decoration of the territory adjacent to the house, and a convenient place for outdoor recreation. It is also of great value as a place for celebrating holidays or significant days with family and friends. Many people prefer outdoor activities more than celebrating at home. The gazebo at such moments becomes an indispensable attribute of your site. Before you start building or order a gazebo, you need to familiarize yourself with some of the features of this structure. There are many design and construction approaches. The selection of material requires at least a little knowledge in the design of such structures..
There are endless varieties of gazebos. The final version of such a structure depends only on the taste, preferences, and imagination of the owner of the site. Let’s take a quick look at the main types of these small decorations of the territory..
Arbors can be divided into types according to different principles: design, type, purpose, material of execution.
- by material there are wood, concrete, metal, forged;
- by execution – open, closed, pergola;
- in shape can be round, square, hexagonal and so on.
The purpose of the gazebo can be very diverse.. It can be a small built-up area for a simple pastime. If you equip the gazebo with a table, bench, stove and the necessary kitchen utensils, it can play the role of a summer kitchen. A gazebo can be a small greenhouse, if small containers for black soil are provided for during construction. Also, the gazebo may not have any practical purpose and be located on the site as part of landscape design..
Before the construction of the gazebo, if you have completely decided on the shape, purpose and material, you can proceed to choosing a place on the territory. Here, too, everything depends on the preferences of the owner. It can be a quiet, cool place near a stream, away from home, where you can escape from the hustle and bustle of everyday life and relax while watching the scenery. Another location option is directly next to the house, so the gazebo can also serve as a terrace.
A practical approach is also possible. The gazebo can be located farther from the house only for the purpose that, in the event of a barbecue or simply making a fire, smoke does not enter the dwelling. Alternatively, it can be located near the workshop, where you can sit, take a break from work. When choosing the location of the gazebo, it is important to study the landscape and soil structure. This will determine which foundation is best to do and whether to do it at all..
It is best to choose the design of the gazebo so that it does not go beyond the style in which the house or buildings in the surrounding area are decorated. Otherwise, if the idea of the project does not fit the style of architecture of the house and the fence, an approach with a specific landscape design is possible. Large boulders with a hint of natural stone look good in the structure of the gazebo itself. A wooden gazebo will look with any material, you just have to dream up with the shape.
The purpose of the gazebo affects its design. So, if the gazebo provides for a brazier or the possibility of making a fire, then it is better to make it open. Removing the pipe from the place of fire will make it closed. The location of the fireplace inside the gazebo may be convenient. This option will allow you to enjoy the natural warmth from the flame of a made fire and make the gazebo closed..
Consider some examples of gazebo design.
- The image of the gazebo is made in harmony with the surrounding landscape. A relatively inexpensive structure, located closer to the park from the house, will allow you to be alone with nature. It is a structure similar to the buildings of the late Middle Ages.
- The gazebo is made in Japanese style. It combines traditional Japanese minimalism with the wealth of an aristocratic society. A large area, comfortable furniture will allow the family to gather for a summer evening, and on a hot day – in the shade and quiet atmosphere to enjoy the surrounding landscape design and nature views.
- Small gazebo, made in antique style. Looks great, is a combination of simplicity and regular shape. Decorated with rich patterns and reliefs. Due to its location among the trees, it allows you to stay in the shade, despite the lack of a roof. In rainy weather, it will not be a shelter from the water, therefore it is more considered as a decoration of the site.
- A striking example of a gazebo made in a modern style. Unusual sophisticated forms, glazing, constructions that have no practical purpose, which are only elements of the designer’s reception, fully correspond to the trends of modern style.
Often there are landlords who want to build a gazebo that differs from standard projects. In addition, everyone wants his construction to meet exactly his needs for practical purposes. Harmony with the individuality of the territory, the desired style, appearance and location make it necessary to make a project on your own. Individual design takes into account the characteristics of the site, buildings located on this territory, and many other factors. You can take an existing project as a basis, add additional details to it or remove unnecessary ones. The basics of any style can be learned from photographs.
Arbor design is divided into three stages:
- design is developed first;
- then a working project is carried out, taking into account materials, fasteners and additional construction techniques and features of the structure;
- at the end, an estimate of all costs is drawn up.
When designing the design of the gazebo, be sure to take into account the type of the main structure. For example, if the house is made in the Greek style, and the gazebo includes features of Chinese traditions, then these buildings will not be combined with each other. When thinking about design, you should also consider the possibility of implementation. No matter how extensive the possibilities of modern building materials and technologies are, not all fantasies can be translated into reality..
Selection of materials, construction technology, installation costs, unforeseen costs must be weighed against the planned budget. When creating a project, it is important to take into account everything: stairs, doors, connection diagrams and the order of erection of one element after another. Think over the technology by which the work will be carried out, select the necessary materials, consider possible obstacles that may arise during construction.
Budgeting is of great importance before starting work. Before purchasing the material, you need to know the total cost of the gazebo, and how much such costs justify the wishes of the owner of the site. When creating sketches of the views of the gazebo, you should immediately consider the color scheme in which the structure will be made. It is important to indicate all dimensions of parts, fasteners and additional elements on the drawings..
When choosing material, one should take into account whether this gazebo will only be summer and dismantled for the winter or will be on the site all year round. Depending on whether it is in the courtyard of a private house or in the country, the material and type of design are selected. A summer cottage, due to the infrequent visits of the owners, will require less maintenance than a home one. Large design costs will not be justified due to the rare appearance of the owners.
When developing a plan for a gazebo, one must take into account the possibility of placing any furniture inside it. The planning of additional elements in the surrounding area will give a more detailed idea of the future structure. An infinite variety of variants of the conceived design are possible. It all depends on the taste and desires of the owner of the site.
Different types of building materials are used for the gazebo. The foundation can be made of brick, concrete, stone or metal. If concrete is used, then the cement grade should be two to three times the concrete grade..
The floor of the gazebo can be covered with different materials. You can simply tamp the ground inside the gazebo. Such a floor is not costly, but will be uncomfortable in the rain. The water will soak the ground, forming mud, which will not only remain on the shoes of vacationers, but also stain the gazebo. In order to avoid these inconveniences, the floor can be made of wood, concrete or tiled..
You can use other options, such as natural stone, large crushed stone, filling the prepared space with pebbles.
- Wood flooring has certain disadvantages. In the heat, the tree heats up a lot, this can be an obstacle to rest on a sultry sunny day. Also, the wooden surface does not retain its original appearance for long. The paintwork wears off over time. Plus, the tree absorbs dirt that visitors bring in in abundance..
- When choosing a tile floor, you should pay attention to matte. Otherwise, the floor will be very slippery and may cause injury. Floor tiles should be designed for the pressure of a person’s weight, and it is necessary to choose exactly its street version..
The tile is glued on a pre-arranged screed with specially designed adhesives. Tile adhesive should also be given special attention, it should be designed for outdoor use. If you use home tiles or glue, the floor will not be reliable and durable. High humidity, frost, exposure to wind and sunlight can lead to rapid destruction of the adhesive and fading of the texture of the tiles..
- When making a floor of natural stone, it should be borne in mind that it will be cold at any time of the year. For such a floor, we can use sidewalk stone, flat flagstone or other options. It is enough that the stone is strong and does not collapse when walking. The stone should be flat or flattened. This is necessary so that the protruding edges do not interfere with the walking of people and do not cause inconvenience for lovers of hairpins..
After choosing the material for the floor, you need to decide on the type of concrete. Today the market offers a rich assortment of various concrete mixtures that just need to be diluted in water. It is necessary to approach this issue, given how moisture-resistant concrete is, resistant to temperature changes and has sufficient strength.
In order to make the walls of the gazebo, various materials are used..
- Wood – the most common material for this type of structure. This option has many advantages. Light weight makes foundation production cheaper. The material can be easily processed, and this makes it possible to give it almost any desired shape. The advantage of this material is also its relative cheapness. Wood on sale is available in the form of a bar, rounded logs, thin slats and boards. The type of wood can be selected at your discretion based on the pricing policy and aesthetic preferences. When choosing a tree, strength is also taken into account. Oak, maple, pine and other possible options have varying degrees of rigidity and durability.
The tree does not require complex maintenance. In order to keep the gazebo beautiful, it is enough to process it. Chemical compounds protect wood from fire, decay, mold, insects, and so on. The disadvantage of this material is that if a brazier is installed in the gazebo, the tree is not applicable. At high temperatures, it can darken even if treated with a flame retardant.
- Metal – very good material for the construction of a gazebo. It can have a very different shape: pipe, angle, profile pipe, and so on. In addition, forged metal can also be used. This design of the gazebo will last a very long time with timely and proper care. Heavy metal gazebos require a foundation.
The disadvantage of such a material may be that it heats up in direct sunlight. Another disadvantage is the care of the metal to protect it from corrosion. Powder spraying is the most effective metal protection. At home, the metal is protected by coating with paint.
- Brick or stone. Such materials are most suitable for making gazebos with a barbecue or barbecue. This is a material for a larger structure, as it allows you to install windows, carry out engineering communications, and insulate the building. Having supplemented the gazebo with these amenities, it can be used in winter. The disadvantage of this material is the relatively expensive cost and the need for a solid foundation..
The roof is also an important element of the gazebo. The roof protects visitors and the entire interior of the gazebo from rain. The angle of the roof slope is determined based on two factors: snow and weight load. For snow, it is better if the slope is steep. On the other hand, the wind on a steeply sloped roof will exert heavy loads and ruin it. If the gazebo is located near a reservoir, it is necessary to take into account the moisture resistance of the materials and provide for treatment with anti-corrosion coatings. Providing for making a fire inside the gazebo, you can not choose combustible materials for construction.
- Polycarbonate or PVC. The advantages of this material are durability, resistance to moisture, low cost. The plus is that, if necessary, the polycarbonate sheets can be removed and reinstalled. Some of the polycarbonate options are available with a UV protective film, while allowing the material to pass a sufficient amount of sunlight.
Despite the fact that it is made resistant to temperature changes, the gazebo is dismantled for the winter. This is done so that polycarbonate does not lose its aesthetic qualities..
- Metal. There are several types of metal coatings. As a rule, corrugated board or metal tiles are used for the roof. The roof of such sheets has a rather beautiful appearance, it looks neat. The practical advantages of such materials are: relatively low cost and low weight load. Today on sale you can find materials designed in the widest range of colors, which gives great scope for the use of imagination. The factory production of such coatings provides for anti-corrosion protection, that is, the material does not need additional processing..
- Bituminous materials. Their other name is soft tiles. The convenience of such a material is the ability to cover the roof, regardless of the angle of the slope and the angles of joining the planes. Tightness, high sound insulation and thermal insulation make it one of the best modern materials. Nevertheless, despite its positive qualities, the material has a drawback – a high cost in comparison with corrugated board and polycarbonate.
- Ceramic roof tiles. Despite the fact that this is one of the outdated materials, many people still use it abroad. Long service life and environmental friendliness allow it to remain in demand today. The service life of the material can be up to 100 years.
The advantage is also that the tiles are resistant to snow, sun and moisture. Does not lose color and shape. The ability to cut the shingles allows it to be used on complex roof shapes. The disadvantage of this material is the high cost of installation, since few people use it in the roof structure. Other options can be used to create a gazebo, for example, polypropylene pipes, reeds as a roof design and other materials at hand.
Any building, be it a house, garage or gazebo, must have a foundation. For a gazebo made of wood that is lightweight, a columnar foundation is best suited. A brick gazebo is heavy and requires a monolithic or strip foundation. In addition, it must be borne in mind that a gazebo, arranged on swampy terrain or unstable soils, needs a foundation, which is a solid flooded slab.
The main qualities of any foundation are its strength and durability. Such characteristics determine the duration of the service of any architectural structure..
Let’s take a closer look at the types of these foundations..
- The strip foundation is designed for heavy structures, for example, brick, concrete walls or floors made of logs and beams. This type of foundation can also be used for lightweight buildings made of boards, a large amount of metal, etc. Under the strip and any other foundation, markings should first be made. It is done based on the shape that the gazebo will have..
After clearing the area and marking, a trench should be dug the same width as the brickwork or other material. The depth of the foundation trench should be 40 cm from the top of the soil. If the foundation is involved as part of a design solution in the form of a gazebo, its width can be varied to the required dimensions. The next step is to lay the sand at the bottom of the trench. The layer will be approximately 15 cm thick. In order to compact the sand, it is brought to dampness by spraying with a small amount of water. After laying the sand, crushed stone is poured into the trench with a layer about 10 cm thick.
This is followed by the manufacture of formwork and installation of its trench. The formwork is made from planks. Its height should slightly exceed the height of the planned foundation. It should be noted here that the foundation can be made up to the ground level, above or below this mark. This can be provided for by the design of the gazebo. If the foundation is carried out below ground level, then the trench should be deepened by the same distance.
For pouring into the formwork, a cement mortar is made. To do this, take 3 parts of crushed stone, 1 part of cement, 1 part of sand.
It will be more convenient to observe the following recommendations for making a solution:
- first, water is poured in which the cement dissolves;
- then crushed stone is poured;
- finally add the required amount of sand.
The foundation dries completely within a month.
Only after this period you can start building the gazebo.
- Screw piles have great advantages over other types of foundations due to their aesthetic appearance and light weight. They penetrate well into the ground, no matter how smooth it is. This option is not applicable for rocky soil, since it becomes impossible to screw piles into the soil..
In order to create a foundation of screw piles, as in the first case, its perimeter is drawn on the site. Then the places where the piles will be immersed are marked with pegs. In order to prevent plants from sprouting under the gazebo, the fertile layer of the earth is removed. Next, levers are used to screw the piles into the ground until they are firmly in the ground. After installing the piles, sand is placed on the site, moistened with water. Crushed stone is poured over the sand. The thickness of the layers of sand and gravel should be approximately 7 cm. Such a pillow will serve as drainage and an obstacle to weed germination. Drainage functions to protect poles from moisture.
Upon completion of the described technological steps, the horizontalness of the base is checked. They make marks of the required level of the plane of the gazebo, and those layers that exceed it are cut off, and those that are less are built up. Next comes the completion of the horizontally aligned piles. Five-millimeter sheet metal is cut into square pieces that will be the supports for the gazebo. Holes are drilled in them to attach the base of the gazebo. These pieces of sheet are then welded to the piles..
- Concrete block foundation. Such a foundation is applicable if the terms of work are very tight, since it does not require a lot of time for installation. It should be noted that such a foundation can only be built on soil that is hard and does not have a large amount of groundwater. Concrete blocks are different in design. There are reinforced concrete and concrete products. Concrete blocks should only be used for light arbors, as they are less durable. If the gazebo will be assembled from timber or logs, reinforced concrete blocks should be used.
In the manufacture of a columnar foundation from blocks, the following technological operations are carried out.
- First, you need to dig holes around the perimeter of the building, which must correspond to the dimensions of the blocks. The depth of these holes should be approximately 125 cm..
- The bottom of the holes is leveled and tamped. This is followed by the already familiar process of laying a cushion of sand and crushed stone. Sand is covered with a thickness of 7 cm, and crushed stone – 12 cm.
- Upon completion of the preparatory work, blocks are installed in the recesses and cement mortar is poured along the edges between the block and the ground. The installation of the blocks should be treated with great responsibility, since after pouring the cement mortar it is no longer possible to change their position. Immediately you need to pay attention to the level. It must be the same for all blocks..
In conclusion, we can add that, in addition to the described foundations, there are other options, such as a brick, a base made of barrels or plastic pipes, poured with concrete, tires, etc. Some of the listed types look rather strange, but despite their non-standard , they can be quite a worthy replacement for their rooted in the construction system “brothers”.
The frame can be made of different materials, and the installation technology depends on what is selected for this. Metal and wood are considered common. Connections in a metal frame are made by welding or bolting. When installing a frame made of wood, nails, self-tapping screws, corners, bolted joints and so on are used. If the frame is made of stone or brick, then a cement mixture is selected.
On the foundation or in the place where the gazebo will be installed, mark out the projected form of the base. Then a beam, a log, a channel, a pipe or other material that was selected for the gazebo is laid out in shape. Then it is necessary to securely fasten the laid base to the foundation. The mount must withstand wind loads, otherwise the gazebo may overturn in strong winds.
After completing the installation of the base, the frame of the gazebo is assembled. In this case, first, vertical supporting pipes or beams are installed and attached to the base. The fastening of the load-bearing elements also requires due attention. It should be noted that the entire load will fall on them, which means that they must have no less strength than the base fastening. Also, the elements themselves must endure the load of the future sheathing and roofing..
After installing the rack elements made of wood or other material, they must be trimmed from above. It is advisable to carry out the lathing after the construction of the roof frame. It should be noted that the procedure for erecting a gazebo made of wood and metal is the same. The only difference is in the connection that is used for these materials..
Consider the technology of erecting pillars from rubble stone, since it has a certain feature. First, separate parts of the formwork are made, which follow the shape of the post. They start with the fact that, having installed the formwork in place of the base of the pillar, the stones are laid out inside, picking them up so that they lie as tightly as possible with each other. Then carefully selected stones are removed from the formwork. After that, pre-prepared concrete is poured with a layer of 50-100 millimeters and the stones are again laid in the selected order.
After the first layer of stones, the next formwork is installed and the operation is repeated.. So, layer by layer, the entire pillar rises. After completing the laying of the stone, the solution dries within 24 hours. After this time, the formwork is removed, and the gaps between the stones are sealed with cement mortar in the proportion – 1 part of cement and 3 parts of sand. The wall is laid out in a similar way. It should be noted that when forming a wall, a reinforcing mesh must be laid every two or three rows of stones. This is done so that the stones have a bond with each other..
There is a wide variety of roofing options. The roof can not only have a specific purpose, but also be an aesthetic decoration, the display of which will impress friends. Single-pitched, gable, four-pitched, spherical, in the form of a dome or tower and other forms of roofs can be built not only to protect from rain and sun, but also have some other purpose..
When choosing the type of roof, the shape of the structure itself is also taken into account..
- The simplest for a quadrangular structure will be a pitched roof, which you can easily make yourself, following the instructions step by step. Simplicity of execution and minimal material consumption make such a roof an optimal and inexpensive option..
- Rectangular gazebos also go well with a gable roof, but here the roof design becomes more complicated..
- Another option for a good combination with a quadrangular gazebo is a semicircular roof. In this case, rafters have to be made of metal..
- A hipped roof is applicable to any shape of the gazebo as long as it is straight lines that form corners. Quadrangle, pentagon, hexagon – for all these options, the hipped roof shape is applicable. For example, for a square gazebo, you can make a roof of 4 identical triangles that will form a pyramid.
- The conical roof option is suitable for round arbors. Although it can be used with a polygonal shape. As an option – a hip roof. It consists of two slopes, made in the shape of a trapezoid, and two more – in the shape of a triangle..
The shape of the roof also depends on the choice of material. So, on a conical roof, metal tiles and corrugated board are inapplicable. The same goes for the round roof..
Depending on the shape of the roof, its frame is formed.
Consider, as an example, the phased creation of a homemade gable and hipped roof.
- When forming the frame of a gable roof, you must first build a ridge. It is a beam fixed on the triangles of the front and rear of the roof.
- Then the lags are installed parallel to the sides of the triangle through a certain step. Having installed the logs, they make a crate of boards parallel to the ridge with a step that will depend on the material used for the roof. For example, if it is a metal tile, then the step of the lathing should be equal to two or three steps of the metal tile.
- The construction of a hexagonal hipped roof begins with the formation of triangles from opposite corners of the gazebo. In this case, the upper corner should provide for the possibility of attaching other lags. When this triangle is ready, logs are applied in the same way from each corner to the upper center point of the roof. The final stage in the formation of the frame, as in the first case, is the filling of the lathing. If the distance between the two slopes is too large, additional ones are attached to the already installed logs, which will be located from the lower edge of the roof triangle to the installed log.
- When forming the frame, it is always important to take into account that each element must withstand the load that will be exerted on it by the entire structure. In addition to the weight of the roof, it is also necessary to take into account the fact that the roof creates a large windage and requires reliable attachment to the gazebo itself.
The decoration of the gazebo can be divided into two types: internal and external. The most common materials for exterior decoration: corrugated board, siding, polycarbonate, lining or edged board.
Let’s consider these materials separately..
- Polycarbonate – allows you to make a very beautiful cladding of any shape. For relaxation in the shade, it is better to choose an opaque material..
- Reiki – a lattice finish is formed from them. As a rule, it is used in openings, it looks very beautiful and effective. The technology for creating such a finish is very simple. First, the slats are stuffed on two frames at a certain angle. Then these frames are folded so that the slats are located crosswise. After fastening together, these frames are installed in the opening.
- Decking is the cheapest and most durable material for finishing the gazebo. Installation of such cladding is simple. A gazebo made of this material looks pretty nice. But the corrugated board has one drawback: it heats up very much in the sun..
- The lining is environmentally friendly and looks very attractive. The structure and color of the wood gives a feeling of coziness and comfort. Here you should pay attention to the fact that the lining of the lining is formed vertically. This prevents moisture from retaining in the grooves between the boards. If we talk about the shortcomings, then any wood finish requires periodic varnishing or impregnation..
- Vinyl siding is a modern material that has many advantages, such as UV and moisture resistance. Ease of maintenance and beautiful appearance give it a certain level of popularity among all finishing materials. Siding, as a rule, is used for sheathing an insulated gazebo, but can also be used in other buildings..
For example, a dilapidated wooden gazebo can be tidied up using this particular material. Like all materials, it has its own drawback: in the cold it becomes very fragile and with little physical impact it can crack.
- Edged board is the most affordable and reliable material. A board of small width looks most harmonious on the gazebo. The board has its drawbacks: it is the possibility of curvature under the influence of moisture, cracking and decay. With timely and careful care, some of the shortcomings can be avoided..
The interior decoration of the gazebo can be made of both artificial and natural materials. Since the gazebo from the inside is most often less exposed to moisture than from the outside, they try to use wood for decoration. It can be lining, board, plywood and other wood products. The best option out of these is plywood. The reason is the durability and stability of this material. The ease of installation also gives it a certain advantage over other materials. Today, plywood sheets of different texture are produced. This makes it possible to choose the pattern structure that suits your taste when trimming..
You can see that plywood is suitable for cladding not only from the inside, but also from the outside. For exterior decoration, laminated sheets are used, which are highly resistant to moisture and sunlight. Despite all its advantages, plywood has a drawback: the adhesives used to make the sheets are hazardous to health. Finishing the floor of the gazebo requires more attention in terms of durability and safety. In order for the floor to meet these requirements, you can use tile, stone, board or linoleum..
The features of stone and tile flooring have already been discussed above, now let’s talk about linoleum and floorboard.
- Flooring is a great option for covering. It is possible to use a terrace board, it is less susceptible to decay, but has a higher cost. In general, the board does not resist water well. When covering the floor with a board, one piece of advice can be given: the panels are best placed at a distance of 2-3 mm from each other in order to ensure ventilation of the material.
- Linoleum is the most affordable option of all types of flooring. Linoleum is completely unaffected by water, looks beautiful and neat.
A variety of materials can be used for the ceiling, including many of the above. The choice of materials for interior decoration depends on whether the gazebo is closed or not. Based on this, certain requirements are imposed on the wear resistance of the material, its resistance to cold, humidity, etc..
In conclusion, you can give several recommendations for building a gazebo with your own hands..
- First of all, you need to consider for what purposes the gazebo will be used. Based on this, design and materials are selected. It is also worth considering whether it will be a temporary structure or a long-term structure..
- When pouring concrete, it is best to connect reinforcement or reinforcing mesh with wire. When using welding, the original strength of the metal is lost.
- In order to make the foundation cheaper, when pouring into it, you can add pieces of broken brick, natural stone. It should be noted that when adding these elements to the concrete composition, excesses should not be allowed, as this can affect the strength of the foundation.
- The frame and roof for the gazebo can be purchased in the kit if you are not sure of your skills as a craftsman. The assembly of such a kit is not a complicated process..
In conclusion – several interesting projects of gazebos that exist in reality.
A charming outdoor gazebo made of wood, covered with soft tiles. Great outdoor seating area.
Another easy and beautiful option. Due to its complex geometric shape, the gazebo has a large enough area to place a table with chairs, benches or other furniture for relaxation inside..
Such a spacious gazebo includes two full-fledged zones at once: a dining room and a bedroom or living room..
This building provides for the presence of a fireplace for cozy evening gatherings in the fresh air. Multi-colored illumination makes the building even more aesthetic appeal.
For how to build a gazebo with your own hands, see the next video..