Attic project: layout options

Mansard-type superstructure projects in private houses are at their peak of popularity today. Mansard superstructures are distinguished by their rationality and economy, while the schemes of most structures are interesting and uncomplicated for skilled hands.

Advantages and disadvantages

The main plus of the attic is that the room is organized in the attic – with proper arrangement, this part will be convenient for useful use due to the increased amount of light and heat. Equipping an attic is more economical than an additional floor. In addition to spending, construction time is also reduced. The construction of the attic superstructure can be started while already living in the house. Due to the superstructure, the heat loss of houses is reduced.

In addition to the positive aspects, the arrangement of the attic also has negative aspects. For example, the choice of insulation and waterproofing materials will greatly affect the cost of the attic structure. The need to equip special roof windows of atypical shape and size will also significantly increase the cost of construction.. The attic requires the obligatory arrangement of a ventilation system, while such equipment must be present in every room of this floor..

Attics are limited in planning due to sloping wall structures, there is a need to arrange a complex roof, and if improperly insulated in the heat, the rooms become very hot, turning into a refrigerator in winter.

In addition, recently psychologists have not recommended the arrangement of the attic. Due to the low sloping ceilings, there will be a sense of danger, and after all, for a long time it is harmful to the mental state.

For the correct choice of options, experts advise to “try on” at least some of them for yourself. Stay in structures with different attic superstructures, listen to yourself and your feelings, choose the appropriate option and translate it into your own project.

Attic device

The rules imply the design of the attic superstructure at the planning stage of the house, since the arrangement of the attic largely depends on the chosen roof option. In some cases, designing a superstructure is also possible in a finished house.. The project should allow convenient use of the created space.

An attic superstructure can be of any geometry: broken, triangular, symmetrical or asymmetric. Depending on the geometry, planning options are also thought out.

Roof structures

Mono-pitched

The height of such a superstructure will not be large. It is important to think over the project of a lean-to attic. The inclined plane has a maximum and minimum height. With a successful design, the room can easily turn into a cozy living room. Other options for zoning the space under a pitched roof are also possible, but it should be borne in mind that most of the space under the roof cannot be used – it will be too low.

Gable attic

This option is also a simple configuration that includes two ramps connected by a ridge. The main advantage of this configuration is the absence of complex calculations.. The main condition is to create a roof with a large angle of inclination..

The version of the gable attic is also popular due to its convenient practical operation – in winter, snow and ice do not accumulate on such a roof. The gable rafter system is typical, so it is easiest to translate it into reality.

A broken configuration is a kind of attic with a gable structure. Here, the height of the walls of the attic superstructure is higher – this is obtained thanks to the broken line of the rafter system. The space of the premises increases, while the option is good for both small and large houses.

However, the calculations for arranging a broken rafter structure are complicated – experts use a large number of special formulas.

Single-level roofs with outboard consoles are even more difficult to arrange, however, as a result of difficult work on the attic floor, a full-fledged apartment is obtained from several different rooms. In addition, the house acquires a feature in the form of an asymmetrical roof. The roof configuration on one side rests on the vertical of the house, and on the other, on the ceiling slab. The roof is high. The project is hardly available for DIY implementation.

There is another uncommon version of a two-level attic. The project involves the placement of several attic rooms on two levels, as well as the arrangement of a balcony. The superstructure requires the creation of a complex rafter structure. She, in turn, requires the correct calculation of the load on the vertical.

The project cannot be realized in an already built house.

Window

Skylights are usually installed on the slope of the roof. They are more exposed to negative factors than conventional vertical window systems. The main task of roof windows is to provide more access to light and heat. With the help of unusual window systems, designer light compositions are even specially created in the rooms.. Window systems can be:

  • front end;
  • stained glass;
  • combined;
  • special, attic.

Mansard window systems are considered full-fledged elements of the roof. Under the influence of weather conditions, ordinary window frames installed in the attic can quickly fail. Manufacturers take this factor into account and produce designs that are able to maintain sufficient tightness. They are distinguished by improved thermophysical parameters and increased rigidity. Usually the frames are made of special laminated veneer lumber. It ensures long-term operation of the window, the structure is not afraid of temperature drops.

Recently, durable plastic roof windows have also appeared on the market. Aluminum frames are almost never used in attics, but frames for window structures are made of this material, coated with special paints. Special flashing allows you to combine window systems into groups. They can be horizontal, vertical or combined..

Particular attention is paid to the strength of the glass, at the same time this element should not be very heavy. Tempered glass is usually used. They are also supplied with an impact-resistant multi-layer coating..

The methods of opening skylights are very different:

  • swing;
  • combined;
  • turning.

The choice of system usually depends on the preferences of the owner and the characteristics of the roof..

Depending on the characteristics of the roof, the possible slope of the window is determined. The distance between the rafters and the possible illuminated area are determined. It is believed that the smaller the roof slope, the longer you need to choose the window. The area of ​​the window is related to the area of ​​space, the ratio is 1: 10. The height of the window structure should be approximately 1.1-1.3 m from the floor.

In this case, the functional purpose of the attic must be taken into account. For a better visual combination, the material of the roof window must be combined with the roofing material..

Roof trusses

The construction of any roof is based on roof trusses. Installation of such a structure is a responsible and time-consuming business, the work presupposes the presence of knowledge and skills in carrying out calculations.

Roof trusses must be able to support the weight of insulation, battens, fallen snow and icing. Strong rafters can be made by yourself. It is important to take into account the peculiarities of the region, including seismicity.

Standard material for rafters – wood. The main elements of the trusses:

  • hanging and inclined rafters;
  • mauerlat;
  • ridge runs;
  • struts;
  • diagonal braces and braces.

    All these parts are connected into a single system, forming rafter trusses that look like one or more triangles connected to each other. The angle of the triangles corresponds to the angle of inclination of the roof. The technology for the manufacture of rafters involves the installation of beams on a Mauerlat, which is placed in the wall – this is necessary so that the weight is evenly distributed around the perimeter. The ends of the rafters are connected to the purlin at the top. A ridge bar completes the ridge of the roof.

    The rafters are located at a certain distance from each other. This distance depends on the selected roofing material. The task of the rafters is to eliminate the deflection of the roofing system. The rafters are held by a girder, which is made of a cross-sectional bar, the girders themselves are supported by uprights and benches. The stability of the rafters is provided by struts.

    It is best to entrust the calculation of the structure to specialists. Many quantities are taken into account in the formulas. You can independently calculate only the required number of components.

    For greater accuracy, a template is created in the work. It determines the slope of the roof slope. Special care should be taken when creating a template. With minimal deviations from the norm, the structure may squirm during further operation.

    One-story and two-story buildings

    Currently, there are disputes about whether it is worth building housing with an attic superstructure, or is it better to give preference to a full-fledged floor. It is believed that the attic will be cheaper.. This issue should be analyzed in more detail..

    • Reduction of expenses when choosing in favor of an attic superstructure is achieved due to the fact that the rafter system serves as the walls of the superstructure. However, it is she who reduces the size of the usable area, and significantly. In addition, due to high heat losses, the attic cannot be equipped without additional insulation..
    • From the point of view of economy, the question of choosing between an attic superstructure or a full-fledged floor does not imply an unambiguous answer. If you carry out non-standard pitched systems in the attic, then the call of the masters who will do this work completely negates the economic advantages. The choice of an attic superstructure or a full-fledged second floor is more likely to be done for aesthetic reasons..

    In any case, a one-story or two-story house with an attic acquires an interesting architectural look, and this is a positive factor. In addition, the attic can be arranged in a two-story mansion, and this will only add additional space..

    Country house

    The best option for a small house with an attic is in the country. Arrangement of the attic space will allow you to use this room for different purposes. Zealous summer residents usually use the attic for household needs..

    The positive factor of the attic is that it can also be equipped in a frame structure. It is frame construction that involves many options for a variety of layouts..

    Arrangement options

    Living rooms in the attic of a country house are not always advisable, so instead of them you can equip a full-fledged recreation room or a working studio there.

    This photo shows a successful zoning of space..

    You can plan in the attic space and a real winter garden.

    Frame house projects are especially popular with summer residents. The reasons for the demand are the cheapness of the method, functionality, an attractive appearance of the structure..

    Interesting projects: examples

    The layout of the attic superstructure in the photo is a shed version, made according to simple drawings, sheathed outside with white siding to more efficiently reflect the scorching sunlight.

    And this photo shows the attic superstructure, designed with a gable roof and its own balcony..

    The internal layouts of the attic floors of this option suggest the placement of a cozy bedroom. A staircase in the corner of the house of 6×8 meters will save space. A bed placed in the area of ​​the greatest slope of the roof will free up useful space for moving.

    A house with a broken roof, thanks to which a full-fledged floor is formed in the attic.

    The photo shows an example of a single-level roof with an outboard console. The internal arrangement involves the placement of a full-fledged nursery with three sleeping places.

    The internal space of the room assumes the presence of all functional areas. Even the modest size of the room allows the design of several rooms, because the average roof of the house has dimensions of at least 12 by 13 meters.

    An example of a two-level attic superstructure. The floor allows you to conveniently place two rooms.

    Compare examples and choose the appropriate options. Create and bring your own project to life. Take into account the necessary calculations in the work related to the installation of the roof truss system, and also think over the necessary combination of types of materials.

    For a successful project of a house with an attic, see the next video.

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