Currently, the construction of large buildings from a large number of lightweight identical parts is in great demand. These can be factory premises, as well as auxiliary or commercial buildings.. To create such houses, builders often use inexpensive sandwich panels, which make it possible to assemble a building with a large area in a short time..
The construction of buildings from such material is economical not only because of the cheapness of the panels, because the work will require a minimum of equipment and the participation of highly qualified workers.. In this article we will talk about the advantages and disadvantages of buildings made of sandwich panels, consider several projects of houses from such material, and also highlight several construction features..
Advantages and disadvantages
Ready-made buildings made of metal structures are very durable and are able to perfectly retain heat inside the building, so they are in demand in the real estate market. Nevertheless, they have both positive and negative qualities, which must be familiarized with before starting construction or operation.
Consider first the advantages of a house made of metal sandwich panels.
- Price. A residential private house built from unified parts costs at least 2-3 times cheaper than classic brick or wood dwellings.
- Construction speed. Due to the size of the slabs and the convenient fixing of parts to each other, the construction of a building from iron panels is carried out in a very short time. For example, if the foundation has already been laid for a house, builders can build the walls of a two-story house in just 12-14 working days..
- Construction conditions. Installation of walls made of sandwich panels can be carried out even in winter, but on condition that the foundation has already been laid for the structure.
- Durability. Houses made of metal structures can serve their owners for about 100 years. However, most buildings have been in operation for 60 to 70 years due to the fact that their appearance is becoming obsolete..
- Reliability. The building is made of unified iron parts and is very durable: it can withstand strong winds, hurricanes and heavy rainfall. The finished structure will remain intact after a 10 ton vertical load per m2 and a 2 ton lateral load per m2.
- High thermal insulation. The dwelling made of panels is a so-called thermos that perfectly insulates the temperature inside regardless of the weather outside. High thermal efficiency is achieved when the house was assembled in compliance with the correct technology for joining parts and a well-thought-out ventilation system was created in it. To achieve the maximum tightness of the panels, it is better to create a frame for them made of metal, rather than wood: this can avoid problems with deformation, drying and decay of natural wood.
- Moisture resistant. Correctly installed standardized iron panels are sealed enough to keep out moisture. In addition, even after the change of season, they will not change their shape and will not begin to dry out and leak water, as sometimes happens with wooden buildings..
- Resistant to solar radiation and temperature fluctuations. Metal structures do not deform from heat and cold, therefore they are not afraid of sudden changes in temperature. Ultraviolet light also cannot harm sandwich panels: they do not dry out and do not change color from interaction with sunlight..
- Human safety. Sandwich panels do not emit toxic compounds with prolonged exposure to sunlight and heating.
This makes metal parts safer for humans than some other building materials..
Now let’s look at the disadvantages of buildings made of metal unified parts..
- The need for high precision fit of parts. During construction, it is necessary to connect the panels to each other so that no gaps remain at the joints. Only a properly assembled house made of metal parts will retain its positive qualities in any weather.
- Poor sound insulation. For sound insulation good enough, choose panels with fiberglass or rock wool core. In any other case, sound insulation can be improved by finishing: internal or external.
- The likelihood of corrosion. The metal frame can corrode, so it must be pre-treated with special protective agents.
- Filler properties. When working with panels with mineral wool inside, it is necessary to prevent the insulation from getting wet, as well as to protect it from moisture ingress during operation. If this rule is not followed, the mineral wool will absorb moisture and deform the sandwich panel. Styrofoam also has a drawback – it is very flammable. To minimize the likelihood of fire, parts with expanded polystyrene should be made of metal, and the joints between them should be protected with iron strips..
- Vulnerability to mechanical damage. If the sandwich panel has been damaged, it cannot be repaired. To fix the damaged part of the house, you will have to completely replace the damaged part..
- Difficulty ventilation. The building, built from unified parts, insulates the room so strongly that without a good ventilation system it will be impossible to stay in it..
- Height limitation. The peculiarities of sandwich panels do not allow the construction of multi-storey buildings, therefore, only low-rise houses or buildings with a high roof are built of them, but only one floor.
The operational features of sandwich panels often discourage people who want to build living quarters, therefore they are most often used to create non-residential buildings.. Sports complex, warehouse, hangar for large equipment, entertainment center and car dealership – this is a list of the main buildings, for the construction of which layered metal parts are usually used.
Nevertheless, housing from such building material is beginning to gain popularity: it attracts people with its low cost, speed of construction and ease of construction, which does not require a strong foundation. There are several main options for projects of buildings from sandwich panels: prefabricated, modular, commercial and residential buildings..
We offer you to familiarize yourself with each type of projects for panel houses in more detail.
- Prefabricated buildings. Typically, such a project is used to create large non-residential premises such as hangars, shopping centers or sports complexes. The advantage of a pre-fabricated building is the high speed of completion of work, where most of the time is devoted to laying a solid foundation..
- Modular buildings. This type of project is best suited for temporary structures such as dwellings on large construction sites, camp camps, scientific or meteorological stations, and exploration sites. The main advantage of modular buildings is the ability to disassemble the finished building and assemble it again without damaging the structure..
Modules can also be changed: shrink, enlarge or transform..
- Trade pavilions. Unified slabs are an excellent material for the construction of commercial premises, because it will be completed in a very short time. During construction, most of the time is spent on building the foundation, however, when building trade pavilions, special methods of creating the basis of the premises are used, which do not require much time and money..
- Country houses. Currently, houses made of sandwich panels are most popular in northern Europe: most budget residential buildings in Finland and Norway are built from this material. On the territory of our country, such material is still not very well known, but it would be perfect for the construction of buildings in Russia, especially in the northern regions. The reasons why houses of laminated metal parts are most often built in places with a cold climate are high thermal insulation and good performance..
Before you start building a house from sandwich panels, you need to familiarize yourself with some of the nuances. No specialist will advise you to use exclusively layered parts for construction, because in this case problems may arise. For example, it is better to use wood for making the floor: it will be much easier to repair it in the future. It is better to make the roof on the basis of rafters: this way the process of creating a house will be easier, and the result of the work will be of better quality..
When you are just starting to erect panel walls, it is necessary to observe the vertical very carefully.. If the first two parts have a slight slope, all subsequent elements will begin to repeat it and strengthen it with each new sheet. Failure to observe a clear vertical will lead to the fact that the walls will be too uneven and they will have to be disassembled and reinstalled.
The construction of buildings from a metal frame and sandwich panels must be carried out using new technologies, taking into account the characteristics of the material. Let’s take a closer look at several of the nuances of creating houses from unified parts..
- Calculation of the bearing capacity. During operation, the house will be exposed to various external factors, for example, snow or strong winds. So that the building does not collapse after the first bad weather, the calculation of the bearing capacity of the walls and roof, as well as the type of fasteners and their number are included in the project of the house..
- Calculation of thermal efficiency. Sandwich panels provide a very high level of thermal insulation: many builders even call them thermos for such properties. Panel buildings save a lot of energy, because in winter during the heating season they practically do not lose heat, and in summer they keep cool inside. The level of insulation depends on the thickness of the iron sandwich panels and the type of insulation inside.
- Ventilation system design. Panels almost completely stop air exchange, turning panel buildings into thermoses.
In order to be comfortable in such a building, it is necessary to design a good ventilation system in advance..