The roof of a one-story house is a key architectural element, which is the crown of the structure. From this article you will find out what it is like, how it is designed, what are the main nuances of its installation..
Depending on the type of construction, the roof is distinguished by the complexity of design and the level of aesthetic transformation of a one-story house.. Particular importance is attached to its type, because different species have different degrees of reliability.. It should be moderately simple, not weighing down the foundation. However, its shape can be not only uncomplicated, but also complex broken line..
The type of this or that variety is determined by the architectural design.. At the same time, in addition to beauty and strength, the roof must perform a number of functions: protect the structure from bad weather, withstand wind and snow loads, be fireproof and chemically inert. The roofs of one-story houses can be classified according to different criteria. For example, they are flat and pitched. Variants of the first group consist of a single flat panel without an angle of inclination. The second varieties are divided into a number of types..
Straight roofs with a single slope are easy to install and economical. They are built faster than other types with minimal consumption of building materials.. Depending on the slope of the straight slope, the height of two opposite walls differs. Initially, single-pitched roofs were designed for outbuildings, verandas and garages. Today they decorate one-story houses made in the style of Art Nouveau, minimalism, hi-tech.
Their rafter system can be traditional (with legs resting on opposite wall floors of the structure by means of a Mauerlat). And also the supporting element is a reinforced concrete belt, built at the stage of wall construction, or the upper row of wood boxes. And also the rafter system can be supported on a wall and a beam. Along the length of the slope, it overlaps the house box. To transfer the load from the walls to the floors, supports are mounted with racks supporting the rafters and rafter legs. The pitched roof shape varies.
Depending on the design, it can be flat, wavy, round arcuate, sawtooth, staircase, hinged, refractive.
Roofs of private and country houses with two slopes are a universal option. They give the building a neat and expressive look. They differ in the simple structure of the rafter system. They are considered one of the most reliable and practical roofs of houses.. Creates an optimal level of ventilation, uniform heating of the attic. Do not delay snow melting.
Used in the construction of private houses. Provide for the use of various building materials, the possibility of arranging a utility room or a residential-type attic under the roof. However, this requires strengthening the rafters. They consist of a ridge girder, rafters with a crate and uprights, struts, Mauerlats, a bed. They can have a traditional and unusual design with different heights of the angle of inclination of the slopes. Rafters are hanging and layered.
The angle of the pitched slope is related to the parameters of the house and affects the height of the roof. The roof is either classic or with built-in gable windows. Variants of the second type require high construction costs.
Gable views are symmetrical, elongated, asymmetrical. The first are classified as classics. The latter, due to their lengthening, are used simultaneously as awnings. Still others often have slopes of different length and slope..
Varieties with 4 slopes are considered particularly reliable.. They are more stable and withstand wind loads better than others.. They can be located on the whole house, or cover it and the terrace area, verandas, being at the same time a canopy. Like other types, they are designed laconic and unusual, which is determined by the architectural design of the structure..
Hip versions have a connection of all slopes at one (top) point. In addition, there are hip and half-hip. Beautiful hipped roofs do not have gables. Along with this, they do not have the simplest rafter system. During their construction, there are often cases with the adjustment of the materials to be laid..
Roofs of this type are distinguished by the presence of large overhangs. Natural building materials are used for their construction. Their construction requires a lot of money.. Most often these are beautiful gable roofs of large width, made of wood.. In addition to large overhangs, they are characterized by powerful rafters and beams, the edge of which extends beyond the walls within 2-3 m. The roof structure has a simple design. However, due to the small distance to the ground, it sometimes does not provide for water drain. Along with this, it is considered one of the most reliable pitched varieties..
It happens almost flat, low. It harmoniously crowns buildings made of brick, stone and wood. Due to the wide projections, it reliably protects not only the house, but also its foundation from getting wet. Withstands heavy weight loads. It is erected on its own, provides for installation on buildings with a not too deep foundation.
Designed with heavy-duty rafter support brackets. Makes the architecture of the building special.
These types of roofing structures often have not only dormers, but also dormer windows.. This ensures a natural level of ventilation in the space under the roof.. And also the required amount of lighting is replenished. Their installation is more expensive than the construction of conventional pitched roofs. Together with practicality, they ennoble the facade of a one-story house. Vary by the type of configuration. Unlike other analogs, they do not have pediments (their role is played by triangular slopes). The shape of the side elements is trapezoidal. This makes installation more difficult..
The construction of the rafter system is more complex and costly. This is not the best option when installing attics. However, this type of roof is not afraid of storm and hurricane winds. It is better than tent counterparts, which have less useful space. Hip roofs are classic, Dutch and Danish. The first 4 ribs extend from the corners and connect at the level of the ridge. The Dutch varieties are distinguished by the presence of short stingrays resting on a pediment. Danish views have a gable with a window.
Such roofs are used to cover irregularly shaped houses.. They are complex in installation and configuration, are distinguished by special aesthetics and give the architecture a uniqueness, increasing its design potential.. They are used when combining roofs, including for obtaining an additional light source in attics. They can have a different number of slopes and a different angle of inclination. Their shape can even be cruciform..
Multi-gable roofs are strong, reliable, durable. They have sufficient ventilation, however, they consist of many elements (ribs, abutments, grooves). They are difficult in terms of fitting and assembly of roofing building materials..
The slightest mistake in the installation of the gutter will cause the roof to leak during its operation. The roofs themselves can consist of two- and four-pitched elements..
A key feature of flat roofs is the ability to fit inside different recreational areas. They are different in configuration.. Traditional types – basic concrete options, covered with steam insulation, insulation and a layer of waterproofing. Inverted counterparts are distinguished by a waterproofing flooring directly on concrete with an upper insulation layer. Breathable species are distinguished by the presence of aerators with non-hygroscopic insulation and ventilation.
Besides, flat roofs are exploited and green. The first types consist of a roofing cake with non-woven membranes and decking. The second involves the arrangement of a lawn or a green garden.
The operated roof of a one-story structure should be practical. Based on this, its design is carried out at the initial stage of construction planning. For example, a lean-to must have a slope. If the walls of the house have the same height, for its construction it is necessary to increase the height on one side. And you can also resort to using building trusses made of wood or metal. When designing other structures, the rafter system rests on the ground.
When designing gable roofs for a 1-storey building, calculations of roofing units (chimneys, ventilation shafts) are carried out. The angle of the pitched slopes varies in the range of 15-65 degrees. The choice of the slope is set by the climatic features of the region. Where rains and bad weather are constant, a slope of 45 degrees is projected. In places where frequent gusts of wind are recorded, a flat roof is designed with an angle of inclination of up to 30 degrees.
Before choosing the slope of the roof, take into account the type of facing building material. Dimensional raw materials are placed on the roof, inclined 25 degrees or more. If the work uses roll cladding, the angle range can be 5-25 degrees. Piece material is laid when the slope is 15 degrees or more. Choosing one type or another, they are taken into account in the attic project. It should not reduce the area, have unused under-roof space.
The greater the slope of the roof, designed during development, the greater the cost of building materials and erection. This increases the area of the rafter system. At the stage of the formation of the roof, they decide on its design, the choice of facing material, as well as its color. For example, the shade can be classic woody, brick, graphite.
When choosing a project with a balcony or a gazebo, special attention is paid to taking into account the height of the walls, the optimal size of the overhangs, the ratio of the shape of the roof and house architecture.
The roofing material can be metal, corrugated board, flexible shingles.. Each material has its own characteristics. For example, metal tiles are valued for their wear and moisture resistance, ease of use, inertness to UV rays and mechanical stress. The corrugated board is easy to install. It is environmentally friendly, durable, lightweight, resistant to temperature extremes. Differs in a variety of color palette. Along with this, it has a high level of noise during rain and is susceptible to rusting.
Flexible shingles refers to seamless roofing. It contains fiberglass with mastic and bitumen impregnation. It is durable, heat and sound insulating, airtight. In addition, other raw materials are used for the final coating (ondulin, folded roofing).
With the proper qualifications, you can make the roof of a house with your own hands. In this case, the installation is divided into a number of stages.. Initially, measurements of the house box are taken. Then the dimensions are correlated with the project plan, building materials and the necessary equipment are purchased. Next, the wood base is treated with a strengthening impregnation. Then the Mauerlat is attached to the wall. When erecting the roof of a one-story wooden house, a Mauerlat is not needed. The upper crown made of a log or a bar is used as it. Fixation is carried out by means of floating fasteners (slide), thanks to which the structure does not deform during natural shrinkage.
If there is a need for a ridge girder, they are engaged in its installation. After that, a frame base is installed, they are engaged in strengthening the roofing element, installing waterproofing, lathing, and conducting ventilation. In brick or stone houses, the rafters are attached to the Mauerlat by means of rigid fixation. A hanging system can be used here. The design can be with or without a cut.
Fastening the rafters to the wall is necessary so that the roof does not break off during stormy winds. For wooden houses, the frame is assembled with staples. The system is reinforced, taking into account the layout, using struts and struts. At the final stage, the final coating is installed. It is important to take into account: the smaller the angle of inclination of the roof, the greater the density of the structure of the facing material should be..
When installing a roof with different slopes, the ridge is not always located in the center. Because of this, the load on the slopes is uneven. The calculation of the rafter system is carried out according to other formulas. The central load does not come from the visor, which is why the supports are mounted slightly to the side. In terms of the type of construction, the roof consists of two unequal triangles.
Any changes to the geometry of one of the triangles affect changes to the entire rafter system. Such roofs are mounted with a powerful Mauerlat for even distribution of loads horizontally..
Before insulating the roof, measure the distance between the rafters. Then the insulating material is measured and the waterproofing is fixed. The insulation is laid from the bottom up, paying attention to the fact that there are no gaps between its plates. The distance between it and the waterproofer should be 2 cm. When erecting a roof, take into account the fact that there should be ventilation gaps in its structure. They will be the prevention of condensation.
Ventilation should provide for air access through the cornice, its movement under the cover and exit at the ridge. When self-erecting the roof of a private one-story house, the correct cross-section of the rafters is selected, not forgetting about a small margin. The height of the section of the supporting legs is selected taking into account the thickness of the insulating material. It should not protrude above the supporting beams.