Any major overhaul in an apartment or house is faced with the process of plastering the walls. Plaster allows you to effectively eliminate any irregularities and surface defects. However, for independent high-quality processing of walls or ceilings, theoretical knowledge, practical experience and adherence to the sequence of work stages are required..
Before plastering surfaces, you need to clearly define the purpose. Mixtures for different types of finishes differ in composition and properties. Plastering work can be done inside and outside the house. Depending on this, manufacturers offer different options for solutions..
To increase the service life and ensure a high-quality coating, it is necessary to follow the rules for applying the mixture and preparing surfaces..
Temperature and humidity
Temperature conditions and degree of humidity are important factors.. Experts advise to carry out internal work at a temperature of 15 to 25 degrees, to ensure the plasticity of the solution. If outdoor work has to be done in the heat, it is recommended to additionally moisten the surface by spraying it with water. This will prevent the plaster from cracking..
The nuances of plastering bases from different materials are different. Manufacturers take these features into account and offer a large assortment of plastering materials, which have instructions indicating proportions and recommendations for use..
Typically, in these cases, a cement-based mixture is used. The proportions are selected individually. Most often, 3 or 4 parts of sand are taken for one part of cement, which must be sieved for cleaning. The composition is poured with water so that the consistency is thick and plastic.
To increase plasticity and resistance to moisture, lime is added to the solution.. For outdoor work, this additive is necessary. In this case, 1 or 2 parts of lime paste and 5 to 7 parts of sand are taken for 1 cement part. The mixing process is extremely important. First, dry parts (cement and sand) are mixed, only then lime diluted with water should be added.
Experts do not recommend applying a layer above 3 cm to a brick wall.
To strengthen it, it is better to use a metal mesh as reinforcement. Since the facing brick has smooth sides, it is difficult to apply plaster on it. In order to increase adhesion to the surface, it is recommended to pre-prime the base with special compounds. And also use a reinforcing mesh.
The main problem with concrete surfaces when plastering is smoothness. Therefore, before work, it is necessary to pre-treat them with quartz-based soil compositions. This will add roughness and improve adhesion.. When working with concrete, cement-based plaster is used. Its use is most appropriate in the presence of roughness, since no additional actions are required, except for applying a primer..
In these cases, traditional gypsum plasters can be used..
If the concrete surface is smooth, experts recommend using a gypsum-lime mixture. Usually it contains 1 part gypsum to 3/4 part lime. Such a solution dries quickly, therefore, when working, you should moisten the surface and do not immediately mix a large volume.
The mixing sequence is important. First, gypsum and lime are diluted with water separately from each other, then the lime mixture is poured into a gypsum plaster and kneaded until homogeneous.
Professionals pay attention to the fact that the processing of any concrete substrates must necessarily be preceded by the process of applying a deep penetration primer..
Gas and foam concrete are the simplest materials for plastering. The preliminary stage is the priming of the walls with compounds with deep penetration. Such surfaces can be plastered with any mixtures: cement, gypsum, lime. If necessary, use a fiberglass reinforcing mesh “serpyanka”.
Plastering wooden bases is a labor-intensive process.
- First of all, it is necessary to treat the wood with antiseptics, which will exclude the appearance of fungi and mold..
- At the second stage of preparation, small wooden slats in the form of a shingle mesh are stuffed onto the surface. Instead, it is permissible to use a metal chain-link with a thickness of 3 mm or more. Experts emphasize that it needs to be fixed using special rails (not to the wall itself).
Since wood has a fibrous structure, any type of mortar will go for plastering. The classic version is based on cement, but cement-lime and lime-gypsum compositions are acceptable.
Types of plaster
Before making repairs indoors, you need to arm yourself with knowledge about the types of plaster. By location, facade compositions are used for outdoor work. Interior mixes are intended for interior decoration. Plastering materials vary in purpose.
These are ordinary plasters, they are intended for leveling the walls. The main task is to prepare the base for further decoration with wallpaper, tiles or panels. As a result, it is necessary to obtain a layer that will withstand the influence of various factors..
According to the composition, several types can be distinguished:
- Cement-sand. The classic version, which has proven itself through many years of application practice. Equally suitable for indoor and outdoor use. A relatively inexpensive composition, if properly prepared and applied, will last for many years. The only drawback is the dampness of the plaster..
- Cement-lime. It is based on a cement-lime composition, which is supplemented with lime and synthetic additives. Lime mortar provides plasticity, synthetic additives – strength and resistance to various influences. Typically applicable for façade substrates.
- Lime-sand plaster has established itself as an interior decoration, since the composition is less durable.
- Lime-gypsum universal, suitable for any type of substrate, except for concrete. In addition, it has a high coefficient of moisture resistance.
- Mortar most often used as a rough version of wall decoration. It is not suitable for outdoors and in rooms with high humidity, they are not recommended to level gypsum substrates.
- Gypsum mix suitable for leveling surfaces indoors. With its help, you can get a perfectly flat base. The downside is the low degree of moisture resistance.
Special plaster has protective functions. It is used as heat, sound and moisture insulation. It acts as a screen against various types of radiation. There are several popular types of specialized plasters..
Thermal insulation is the most common type that is used for external and internal work. It is practical, safe and functional. The composition allows the material to fit well on substrates with any surface. The main feature of the solution is viscosity.
Fillers with a porous structure help to retain heat.. For this, several materials are used:
- Foam glass, which is quartz sand foamed under the influence of high temperature. The material is characterized by incombustibility, low water absorption, resistance to shrinkage.
- Vermiculite obtained in a similar way from mica. It is heat resistant, but high hygroscopicity reduces consumer demand.
- Perlite formed by firing volcanic glass. The porosity allows the material to reduce noise levels in the room and retain heat. Has the same disadvantage as vermiculite and therefore requires a protective coating.
- Expanded polystyrene contains all the advantages of the materials described above, it is moisture resistant. However, it is flammable, so its use is limited..
- Sawdust – the cheapest, environmentally friendly and efficient option.
It is better to use them only for internal work..
The thermal insulation compound is used as an additional layer, which is recommended to be applied with a thickness of no more than 50 mm. Otherwise, the mixture will slide off the base under its own weight. Warm plaster can provide good insulation when plastering walls inside and out..
Soundproof plaster is often used to treat the walls of large workshops and concert halls. It contains special additives (expanded clay, pumice, slag). For private interiors, the solution is also appropriate, especially when finishing with marble or tiles, as it will reduce the echo of the room..
An important condition is compliance with some rules. For example, surfaces must first be primed in several layers; there should be no temperature difference during drying. Since surfaces treated with acoustic plaster cannot be painted, they are covered with cloth or covered with decorative grilles.
The waterproofing mixture is intended for use in wet rooms (baths, showers, balconies and basements). Contains an astringent base (e.g. cement), filler and various mineral or synthetic additives.
The X-ray protective variety is characterized by the presence of barite concentrate, which can replace the lead screen. The layer should not have joints, therefore it should be applied once up to 50 mm thick. It is important to observe a temperature regime of at least 15 degrees.
Acid-resistant plaster is used when it is necessary to protect surfaces from the effects of various chemicals. The solution contains potassium glass, stone flour and quartzite sand. The main layer is covered on top with additional cement-sand for protection, processing by ironing.
Decorative plaster, as a rule, is a finishing material and serves as a decor in the interior. Plaster can be structural, textured and Venetian. The latter type is used only for interior decoration. The composition of the structural mixture is characterized by the presence of silicates or acrylics, as well as other additives that add volume to surfaces..
For the same purposes, there are different ways of applying plaster..
A distinctive feature of the textured composition is plasticity. It makes it possible to create drawings, simulate various materials. The decor made with such plaster is not only aesthetically pleasing, but also allows you to hide the imperfections of the walls. Designers add a variety of textile and plant fibers, stone chips, glass beads, sequins and much more to textured mixtures..
Experts advise on a mandatory basis to carry out preliminary treatment of the decorated bases with antiseptics. It is important to cover the plaster layer on top with protective compounds so that mold and fungus do not start.
For the effect of the texture “fur coat”, “bark beetle”, “Venetian plaster”, you can buy special tools. The Venetian variety of plaster is unique. It imitates marble due to the marble powder that is part of it. The cost of such a finishing coating is not affordable for everyone, but this plaster looks luxurious and amazing. The top is covered with wax to give shine, emphasize depth and protect from damage. You can prepare such a composition from a putty.
By glue component
Depending on the binder component, plaster mixes are divided into several varieties:
- Acrylic contains acrylic resin, which gives plasticity to the mass. This property determines the smoothness and strength of the coating. The disadvantage is the low degree of vapor permeability and exposure to ultraviolet light..
- Mineral is based on cement. Therefore, over time, the strength of the coating increases. The advantages include the relatively low cost and immunity to sunlight, the disadvantages – low resistance to mechanical stress.
- Silicone characterized by excellent moisture resistance and plasticity, which is provided by synthetic resin. It can be painted in different colors, different textures can be obtained..
- Silicate contains liquid glass, so it is durable, fireproof and resistant to high humidity. Has the longest service life, reaching 50 years.
Wall alignment methods
The main task of plaster is to level surfaces. To do this, you must first measure the curvature using a building level. If the difference is less than a centimeter, you can use a putty. It is better to eliminate significant deviations with plaster..
As a rule, there are two ways to level the walls..
If the irregularities are significant and the surface area is large, then you cannot do without beacons. They make it possible to see the thickness of the plaster layer that needs to be applied. First, you need to mark the place of plastering. Then you need to install the first beacon parts near the ceiling and near the floor, for example, screw in self-tapping screws.
Cords are pulled between them. The distance between the base and the cord is arbitrary (the main thing is that they do not touch). Further along the cord, the rail is vertically fixed using plaster of Paris for this. Usually, the first profiles are placed in the corners, the intermediate ones – parallel to each other with a step of up to 1.5 m, depending on the size of the rule.
Verticality control is carried out using a plumb line. The plaster is applied gradually from lighthouse to lighthouse. After the mortar has set, the beacon profiles are removed. The resulting voids are filled with plaster. After that, the entire surface is sanded, achieving smoothness.
This method is simpler than the previous one, since it eliminates the preparatory steps for installing beacons. In addition, the plaster is applied in a thin layer, which saves on material. but this method is appropriate only if there are slight irregularities:
- At the initial stage, the surface is primed, large potholes, scratches and chips are putty.
- Next, apply the solution in three stages, allowing each layer to dry. The first one is thrown with a trowel. Its thickness depends on the type of material from which the base is made. The rule helps to correct irregularities, the trowel will help stretch the plaster along the entire wall. The second layer is carefully applied with a wide spatula, its thickness should not exceed 8 mm. Its task is maximum alignment. The final third stage is designed to achieve smoothness. Its thickness is 1-2 mm. Better to apply it on a slightly damp second coat.
Plastering corners is a complex process that is not subject to everyone. Instead of lighthouses, you can use a trimmed surface of a perpendicular wall and a square or a rule. Before starting work, it is important that the main area of the walls has already been processed and prepared..
The corners themselves must be primed with a deep penetration solution.
In this case, there are two cases of plastering: with the alignment of both surfaces or one. In the second, one wall of the inner corner is processed. The solution is applied in the usual way, after which it is stretched with a rule from the corner along the base. Then rub the corner up and down with an angular trowel. As reinforcement, you can use a reinforcing mesh or a special perforated metal profile.
The outer corners are plastered in the same way. The method is not much different from the previous one. Manufacturers of building materials offer to facilitate the task by using a perforated metal profile, which will allow you to get an even and reliable outer corner. Attach it to cement or plaster. You can use the method without auxiliary elements. In this case, first one wall is plastered, and then the other. It is important to ensure that the surface is level..
Required tools and supplies
Before plastering, it is necessary to prepare all the tools and materials that will be needed at the preparatory stage, during work and during finishing. You can list the most commonly used.
- soil solution;
- beacons of different sizes;
- corner perforated profile;
- reinforcing mesh;
- perforator and mixer attachment for mixing;
- various graters;
- scissors for metal for cutting beacons;
- screwdriwer set;
- building level;
- plumb line;
- several spatulas;
- dowels, screws, screws;
- roller and brush for applying a primer;
- containers for dilution and mixing;
- tape measure, pencil or chalk for marking;
- protective gloves;
Wall markings and primer
Before you start working with plaster, you need to mark the walls.
At the initial stage, preparation is carried out. It should be done by examining the walls using a building level and a plumb line. Similarly, deviations are detected, which are marked with a marker. In the case of significant bumps over 3 cm, it is better to cut them off with a grinder. Recesses putty.
After the completion of the preparatory work, they begin to markup for the installation of beacons.
They start with the extreme (corner) beacons:
- To do this, retreat from the corner by 30 cm in each direction.
- A vertical line is drawn from top to bottom, from which the next parallel line is drawn at a distance of 1.5-1.6 m (and so on to the end of the surface). The distance between the beacons should be such that it is convenient to work with the rule.
- For an instrument with a length of 2 meters, a width of about 1.5 meters is laid.
- You should step back 15 cm from the floor and ceiling in order to install the self-tapping screws. They will be decisive for lighthouses. First pull the horizontal cords near the floor and ceiling.
- At the intersection of cords with vertical markings, it is necessary to screw in the dowels. They will be needed to install beacons.
Priming is a mandatory preparatory stage before plastering surfaces. This process increases the adhesion between the plaster mixture and the substrate, removes dust and reduces the absorption of moisture from the mortar. In addition, the primer serves as an antiseptic, it improves wall ventilation, prolongs the life of the coating..
Manufacturers in the instructions for the product describe in detail how to dilute the primer, how to apply it and what materials it is suitable for. For particularly smooth and porous surfaces, deep penetration compounds are used. It is better to apply the primer in several layers, allowing the previous one to dry within a few hours. When applying the topcoat, it is best to leave the base overnight (about 10 hours).
The installation of beacons can be carried out only after the soil layer has dried. To level horizontal or vertical surfaces, you need to adjust the thickness of the plaster layer. This is especially true with significant irregularities. For such purposes, beacons are used..
They are different:
- Made of metal. Metal beacons are perforated galvanized metal profiles. According to the standard, the length is 3 meters, the depth is from 3.6 to 10 mm. Fix the lighthouses to the wall with screws. Beacon profiles are designed to control the thickness of the applied plaster. After plastering, they are removed..
- From plaster. Gypsum beacons differ from metal ones in that they do not need to be removed after plastering the surface. Therefore, it is believed that this method is more economical. Plaster beacon parts can be made by hand. As a result, a plaster vertical is formed on the surface, which serves as a beacon..
- Made of plastic. Plastic beacons are analogous to metal ones. The material for them is high-strength plastic. The fastening process is similar to the installation of galvanized metal profiles. The main disadvantage of such beacons is fragility, so you should not hit them hard with the rule when plastering the surface..
Installation of metal and plastic beacons
When marking the surface near the floor and ceiling, screws are screwed in. Before installing the beacons, it is necessary to check and control the verticality of the lines obtained using a plumb line. In the process of marking, it is necessary to pull the guide cords vertically, horizontally and diagonally. Under each of them, you need to draw a beacon profile. If the beacons cling to the level, the screws must be reinstalled..
Next, the profile is cut to the required length. To do this, 10 cm is taken away from the distance between the extreme dowels. Thus, the beacon will recede from the upper and lower self-tapping screws by 5 cm. Then you should prepare a plaster solution for installing beacons. Experts pay attention that the consistency of the finished plaster should be thinner than usual, but it should not drain from the spatula..
The mixture is applied to the substrate along the marked vertical line. The beacon profile is pressed into the plaster flush with the screw heads. The evenness of the installation should be checked using a building level and a long rule. If necessary, you need to correct.
After making sure that the beacon is installed correctly, the screws must be removed. In a similar way, beacons are installed along the entire surface prepared for plastering. The distance between them should be such that the rule, when aligning, simultaneously walks along two near profiles. As a rule, about 1.5 meters are left.
Fixation of plaster
The sequence of actions for attaching plaster beacons is as follows:
- First, dowels are installed on the surface at a distance of 15 cm from the floor and ceiling.
- Screw in the screws so that the caps are at the desired height. For leveling it is better to use a level.
- A metal or wooden flat bar is installed on the screws..
- Holding the profile, throw plaster into the space between the plank and the wall.
- Excess plaster solution is removed with a trowel, after which the profile is removed.
- Thus, all the remaining beacons are installed..
After the gypsum is completely dry, you can start plastering.
Preparation of the solution
Depending on the wall material, the composition of the plaster may vary. Recently, manufacturers have been offering ready-made plaster mixes with detailed instructions for preparation, use and storage conditions. If the plaster is not prepared from individual components, but a semi-finished product is purchased, it is better to follow the recommendations of the manufacturers. If the mixture is prepared on its own, it is necessary to correctly select the amount of necessary components..
Let’s list the most popular formulations:
- Cement. The simplest option consists of 1 part cement and 3 parts sand. The sand must be cleaned and sifted. The larger its fraction, the harder the plaster is. For finishing, it is better to use a fine sand mixture. It makes the plaster more plastic.
- Lime. The solution is prepared from 1 part lime flour and 3 parts sand.
- Cement-lime. More reliable because cement provides durability and lime provides ductility. In this case, the component composition is as follows: 1 part of lime and cement, 5 parts of sand.
- Lime gypsum-added material consists of 1 part gypsum powder and 3 parts lime paste.
The cement based mortar dries quickly and must be used within 30-60 minutes. Gypsum varieties dry faster than others (up to 30 minutes). Therefore, you need to first assess your capabilities and dilute the required amount.
To mix high-quality plaster, you must adhere to a certain sequence. At the initial stage, all components are mixed dry. Water is poured into the mixing container first. It is better to use it drinking, not technical. 6 to 8 trowels of the mixture prepared at the first stage are poured into the liquid. The solution must be mixed using a special construction mixer or a drill with a similar nozzle.
Subsequently, the rest of the mixture is gradually poured, while the mixing process does not stop. The procedure continues until the plaster reaches the desired homogeneous consistency. The resulting plaster mixture is left to brew for about 3-5 minutes, after which it is mixed again. At this stage, you can adjust the composition and degree of density.
From one batch, you should get as much material as is needed for plastering within 30 minutes..
You can apply the plaster mixture to the base in different ways. Each method has its own characteristics.
There are two main ways to apply plaster to the substrate:
- Professional. This method is more often used by experienced finishers. It consists in throwing a solution onto the surface, stretching it using the rule.
- Unprofessional. For novice builders, the second method is more suitable, when the mixture is applied to the base with a wide spatula, and then smoothed with a trowel.
Do-it-yourself wall plastering technology is based on three stages:
- Splashing. For the first stage, it is important to mix the solution correctly. It should be more liquid than for subsequent layers. The thickness should correspond to the type of material from which the base is made. Brick and concrete are suitable up to 5 mm, and for wooden surfaces it is better to make a layer of 10 mm, since after the work is completed, the shingles must be completely covered. Experts recommend throwing plaster on, because under the action of the impact, the particles of the solution penetrate deeper into the base, filling the voids better. After throwing the mortar onto the wall, it should be leveled. If bubbles form during application, the plaster must be removed in this place, then reapplied and smoothed. Otherwise, the repair threatens to end in pieces of dried mortar that have fallen out in the places of the formed voids. Initial finishing does not require perfect smoothness.
- Ground layer. Here you will need a thicker pasty composition. At this stage, it is extremely important to control the evenness of the plastering during the process. The plaster mixture is applied with a wide trowel, stretched with a rule and with a trowel. The maximum permissible thickness of the second layer should not exceed 20 mm. As a rule, this limitation applies to wooden bases. For others, the indicator is even less.
- Nakryvnoy. The third stage is the finishing one. In this case, a mixture is prepared with a consistency reminiscent of thick sour cream. It will smooth out the last imperfections of the soil layer and get a perfectly smooth surface. To obtain an even and plastic structure, all components are sieved through a sieve. It is not necessary to let the second layer dry completely; it is better to additionally moisten it with a slightly wet roller before applying. The thickness of the topcoat must be no more than 2 mm.
Leveling is performed with a half-trowel in a circular or wavy motion..
The technology for applying plaster to different materials may differ slightly from the standard one. Therefore, it is necessary to follow the instructions of the manufacturers when buying ready-made mixtures or to get preliminary advice from specialists. For example, many multi-storey buildings are insulated outside with penoplex. However, mechanical strength and moisture resistance are not characteristic of it. Better to protect it with plaster. However, the use of cement mortars in this case is contraindicated, since they destroy the penoplex. In this case, you need to choose specialized mixtures..
Often, during interior decoration, it turns out that the floors are made of plasterboard. Before plastering, you must first clean the coating with sandpaper. Then you should apply a deep penetration primer and only then you can start finishing the base with plaster. The main thing is that all layers are as thin as possible..
With a large amount of work, companies use specialized equipment for plastering walls, which allows you to speed up the process and improve quality. The principle of operation of such a technique is the same for everyone. First, the ingredients are placed in a special compartment, the volume of which can reach up to 75 kg. The chamber is connected to the power supply, automatic mixing takes place.
The plaster mixture is applied by means of compressed air to the base.. The jet distance may vary. Experts advise moving from top to bottom in strips, making them overlap. The layer thickness can be adjusted. The final leveling is done manually using a rule or a spatula..
The main advantages of this method:
- speed of work;
- reduction of costs for plaster (reduced consumption);
- reduction of labor costs for workers;
- improving the quality of the mixture (due to machine mixing, a more homogeneous structure is obtained);
- improved adhesion due to pressure spraying;
- reducing the cost of additional preparatory and finishing work (the process is limited to two instead of three stages).
Machine application of plaster is carried out with a special composition, which, in addition to the base, includes special additives and hardeners.
They ensure a homogeneous mixture and prevent cracking after drying..
Reinforcement allows the application of a thicker layer of plaster and prolongs its service life. Plastering smooth surfaces increases the risk that the plaster may fall off the wall after drying. Therefore, such bases are reinforced in the first place. Reinforcing mesh will increase the adhesion of the plaster to the surface.
If a thin layer is to be applied, it is better to use fiberglass mesh. For thicknesses up to 2 cm, metal is suitable.
The mesh is pre-mounted on the base. In the case of using fiberglass, the fasteners are carried out around the perimeter using gypsum or a thin layer of plaster. Installation always starts from the top. The mesh should not sag anywhere. The rest of the plastering process is similar to the manual method described above..
After the last finishing layer of plaster dries up, start the grouting process. It is designed to eliminate minor defects, leveling and smoothing the surface. To do this, use various graters, differing in size and materials of manufacture:
- Most often, wooden floats are used, since they are suitable for cement and plaster mortars. The main disadvantages of such products are rapid abrasion and deformation. The advantages include low cost and the ability to make them yourself from any wooden block.
- A plastic float is appropriate when grouting small areas. Experts use them to obtain embossed surfaces. It takes skill to be able to use.
- The polyurethane float is lightweight, durable and easy to use. It is suitable for any plaster, has a low degree of abrasion. Its only drawback is the high price.
- The foam grater has many advantages (cheapness, lightness, convenience). However, all of them are covered by the only minus – fragility. Therefore, it is mainly used for finishing sanding..
- Sponge floats are made from a variety of materials, including rubber and latex versions. Most often used as a tool for shaping a textured surface.
- Metal graters are necessary to seal the plaster layer, to obtain a smooth surface for painting.
The technology is as follows. The trowel is pressed against the surface and is driven in a circular motion over the surface counterclockwise. This method is called “round”. It allows you to compact the plaster layers, but it is impossible to achieve perfect smoothness in this case..
If on top is meant a decorative finish in the form of tiles, panels, grouting at this stage can be stopped.
To eliminate traces of circular movements, make straight up and down sweeps.. This method is called “ramp-up”. Experts pay attention that grouting is necessarily carried out on a wet basis. In this case, the grater must be clean and even. Irregularities in the trowel or adhering crumbs can cause scratches. If the surface dries quickly, then moistening with a spray will improve the smoothing procedure..
If it is necessary to obtain a perfectly smooth surface (for example, for painting), take a float covered with felt or felt and grind the base. If grouting is carried out in the process of applying decorative plaster, it is necessary to form a certain relief. In this case, detailed instructions on how to render the texture from the base are appropriate. The full specification is always applied to decorative plaster manufacturers..
There are 2 main ways to form a pattern:
- When applied. On a previously prepared surface with a spatula, plaster mortar is applied in random order. An important factor is the thickness and uniformity of the layer. No additional alignment is required. After application, it is necessary to wait until the solution sets in such a way that it does not stick to the grater (about 20 minutes). Then, with a trowel soaked in water, smooth out without pressure in one direction. Moisten the grater periodically.
- After the plaster layer has dried. Decorative plaster is applied to the base with a thickness of 2-3 mm. With the help of a metal rule, they are distributed over the entire area, simultaneously eliminating all transitions and defects. Then the surface is allowed to rest for 15-20 minutes. Plastic floats are used for grouting. A clear, beautiful pattern will appear only if you carry out movements in one direction. Moreover, they can be any: circular, vertical, diagonal, wavy. The grater must be moistened during trowelling, as well as cleaned of adhering dirt. After grouting, the coating is sanded with a foam trowel.
To get the expected result, a beginner needs to follow the advice of professionals. Usually, the path to getting the job done right is based on several components. TO these include:
- high-quality plaster solution;
- correct preparation of the mixture;
- compliance with the storage conditions for all components of the composition.
- It is important at the very beginning of work to determine the purpose of plastering. You can simply level the walls to then finish with tiles or other finishing materials. Sometimes it is required to achieve maximum smoothness (for example, when preparing walls for painting).
- Before starting work, the surface should be cleaned and primed. Deep joint joints with honey panels should be foamed.
- In the process of plastering, temperature is important., as well as indoor humidity. Works can be performed at temperatures from 15 to 20 degrees in the presence of dry air inside the house. In hot climates, you will have to constantly moisturize the plaster layer. Otherwise, it will dry out quickly and crack..
- Cement is considered a versatile component of plaster. It is used for outdoor interior work. If the owners are unsure or don’t know which option to choose, it is best to start with a cement-based plaster..
- Brick walls are plastered depending on the circumstances. For outdoor work, it is better to use cement; for interior decoration, it is permissible to use gypsum solutions. Cladding brick should be reinforced as it is too smooth.
- Cement compositions are not suitable for Penoplex, since they corrode it.
- Wooden walls are pre-coated with shingles before plastering.
- For leveling surfaces, it is better to use the beacon method of applying plaster..
- If a thick plaster layer is needed, then it is applied in several approaches, allowing each previous layer to dry..
- One-layer coatings are leveled immediately after plastering.
- When plastering a concrete or brick surface, the adhesion of the composition to the base occurs not only mechanically, but also due to a chemical reaction. However, gypsum does not have the second property. It is mechanically attached to the wall. If the treated areas are exposed to vibrations or shocks, there is a risk that the gypsum plaster will fall off. To give the base texture using plaster, you can use various fillers (synthetic or natural fibers, stone chips, glass, beads, sawdust).
- If you need to get three-dimensional drawings, it is easier to use a stencil.
There are technical requirements for thickness:
- For single-layer plaster of any composition (except gypsum), a thickness of up to 20 mm is permissible. For plaster – up to 15 mm.
- When forming multi-layer plaster without synthetic additives, there is a dependence on the type of base material.
- “Spatter” for brick and concrete surfaces is 5 mm, for wood – up to 9-10 mm.
- “Soil” on a cement basis is allowed up to 5 mm, for lime and gypsum mortars – up to 7 mm.
- “Covering” layer of ordinary plaster can be up to 2 mm thick, for decorative options – up to 7 mm.
For what you need to know about the calculation of plastering work, see the next video.