Drywall is widely used. But many people do not know how to mount it, attach it to the wall. The simplest knowledge allows you to do this work efficiently and without unnecessary problems..
Drywall is a convenient and practical material that allows you to level the walls. But not everyone knows how to work with it correctly. Each case has its own nuances that need to be taken into account. The universal requirement is that the target wall must be carefully examined. It is necessary how to find out the type of material, deal with all the defects.
It is necessary to mount drywall for leveling, insulation, noise protection and other purposes in different ways..
Drywall sheets can be glued to a concrete wall that has a perfectly flat surface without external deformations. Preparation is reduced to impregnation with an antiseptic mixture and a primer. Then the surface is marked out for sheets, glue is prepared and the finishing material is installed. There must be a gap of 0.5 cm between the blocks, cross-shaped joints are not allowed. If there are recesses, it is worth using beacons: this will increase the speed of work..
Attaching drywall to concrete is possible using frames. They are made of wood, aluminum with an outer zinc layer. The builders make the exact choice themselves, focusing on the properties of the target surface and its future use. Most experts initially do not think about the choice, preferring wooden structures. Rails are preferable, their attachment points are marked, then dowels must be attached in these places.
When working with a brick wall of an old building, non-residential building or summer cottage, it is permissible to use only metal profiles. The probability of encountering high air humidity, blowing and jerking temperatures is too high there. To attach drywall to surfaces of different materials, you must first mark the walls by drawing an extremely straight line (this will be a level line). It is recommended to use not a simple building level for work, but a spirit level. By applying marks on adjacent walls, their level is checked on a specific wall and in all corners, ensuring that the lines are drawn into the space.
As for the ways to level the walls in the house using drywall sheets, in any case self-tapping screws or plastic dowels should be used. It is forbidden to use dowel-nails for vertical fastenings. The indents from the walls are made as symmetrical as possible. To attach the material to the concrete mass, there is only 1 option: the use of metal dowels, which can withstand significant mechanical stress.
It is especially worth dwelling on plasterboard finishing of aerated concrete structures. This material is quite soft, therefore it is advisable to use nails or small screws for fastenings..
When it is necessary to achieve maximum resistance to pulling out force, it is worth using wedge-shaped nails..
It is worth remembering that metal fasteners in all types of concrete are easily destroyed due to chemical processes taking place inside. For connection, it is worth taking threaded screws throughout the body. It is unacceptable to use binding elements made of rusting steel, not covered with a zinc layer. In this case, nylon dowels are considered the best fasteners, they are reliable, they serve more than many other connecting nodes.
When trying to save money in decorating houses made of aerated concrete, it is worth using glue. It will help reduce costs and maximize space in a small space. At the same time, the adhesive connection will not affect the quality of masking defects in the base material and unseemly electrical wiring. But aerated concrete will have to be thoroughly cleaned and dried. Only then will the grip be normal. The thickness of the created seam is influenced by the severity of mechanical surface defects..
Let us consider in more detail the fastening of drywall to the wall based on the frame. Let’s dwell on the types of profiles and fasteners.
For fastening drywall, you can use various kinds of profile structures.. They all boil down to two key options:
- wooden block;
- metal block.
High quality hot zinc treated steel has an extremely long service life. Rather, tenants will move to a new house due to the demolition of the old from dilapidation, than such a connection degrades. Galvanized metal is extremely resistant to invasions of aggressive insects that can break the strongest wood in a matter of years. The stability of the shape and dimensions of steel is also a significant plus. No wood species is immune to changes in proportions with fluctuations in moisture. The difference lies in how pronounced these changes are. Even a slight change in proportions leads to cracking of the skin and divergence of joints.
The metal profile is different in design:
- The rack-mount version is marked with the mark “PS” (in the imported version “CW”).
- The guide is usually denoted “PN” or “UW”.
- There are two more basic types, but they are designed to work with ceilings, not always suitable for walls (“UD”, “CD”).
- A flexible arched profile has an auxiliary role. The purpose of its use is the formation of arches due to a small bend radius..
Corner structures are placed under the putty to strengthen the outer corners of walls, openings of windows and doors.
Some of the corner profiles are made of polyvinyl chloride.. Plastic reinforcement corners are sometimes equipped with reinforcing meshes. With the help of a rack profile, you can assemble vertical racks for a wall frame or partition. Its auxiliary function is the preparation of jumpers separating the racks from each other. This solution helps to make the frame stiffer..
The guiding type of profile is placed in capital structures (floor, ceiling, walls adjacent to the trimmed planes). The ends of the racks can be brought inside it. The ceiling profile (regular and guide), in addition to the lathing of suspended ceilings, turns out to be a valuable device when leveling walls with significant (more than 5 cm) deformation. The racks withstand the bending effect well, but the profile for the ceiling is mounted using straight and adjustable hangers. If the length of the ears is not enough, you can connect a pair of straight hangers in series to expand the gap from the main wall to the facing material.
When choosing racks, you need to focus on their size (the wider the product, the higher its resistance to bending). The length for different manufacturers ranges from 250 to 600 cm, but the problem is that it is not always possible to find a complete set in store windows. Usually there are guides (wall and ceiling) with a size of 3 m, as well as posts of 3 and 4 m. When the available length of the profiles is not enough for the intended purpose, a straight connector can be used. In some cases, the cross type is used, the so-called “crab”.
The real cost of profiles is determined by more than one section and length of the material: the thickness of the structure also plays a role. Premium 0.55mm designs are approximately 50% more expensive than the economical 0.4mm. You can cut any galvanized profile only with metal scissors. Abrasive cutting with a grinding wheel will damage the zinc sheath. Because of this, in the future, the material can rapidly rust at the slightest contact with moisture. The strength of the surface determines the size of the fasteners installed.
How to attach?
A dowel of 4×0.4 should be inserted into heavy concrete, and 8×0.8 cm into loose concrete. The guides need to be fastened after drilling with a perforator, the drill is inserted directly through the pressed profile. The dowel-screw inserted into the punched hole is tightened (such a scheme of work allows you to fix the structures without unnecessary problems). The step between the fixing points is approximately 50 cm. The hangers for the profile are placed on the ceiling with an interval of 0.6 m..
On the walls, where they carry the least load, they are mounted with a step of 80 cm.
In damp rooms, runners cannot be installed with wooden chops. These elements will dry out too quickly and fall out..
Among self-tapping screws, the best results are shown by products for metal, the length of which is 0.9 cm. It is difficult to tighten self-tapping screws with screwdrivers, therefore experienced builders always use a screwdriver. The gaps separating the racks or lathing elements are 0.6 m.The step is measured from one axis of the frame to another.
When it is known that the structure will undergo significant loads, the gap separating the profiles can be reduced to 0.3 m. The only condition is the multiplicity of the width of the plasterboard sheet and the selected distance. To strengthen the frame of the partition, it is not at all necessary to use thicker racks or bring them closer together. Bars with a cross section of 5×5 cm are introduced into each rack.Also, using the technology, you can tie the racks themselves (they put one into another or fix them tightly).
The use of a damper tape helps to increase the protection against extraneous noise.. Due to it, the transmission of sound waves from drywall to the capital elements of the house is disrupted. If you need to install a door or window unit (including those made of metal-plastic), you need to attach it to the side profiles and horizontal lintels. For connection in such cases, self-tapping screws with a length of 1.6 – 3.2 cm are used.To increase the tightness and strength of the structure, it is advisable to use polyurethane foam in advance.
Creating partitions is pretty straightforward:
- First, take a plumb line and mark the axis on the floor, ceiling and adjacent walls.
- Then guides are mounted along this line.
- Racks are marked on ceilings and floors, for this they also use a plumb line.
- The markings should be kept accessible for observation even after the frame is closed with a layer of gypsum board. This will make it easier to attach sheets when the racks are hidden..
- Racks are cut to length and set according to marks. Each of them is attached to the guides on both sides..
- The step-by-step instructions for soundproofing partitions look different. It requires the creation of a pair of autonomous frames, the gap between which is only about 1 cm..
Regardless of the composition of the work performed, it is required to carefully select fasteners. They should be:
- visually smooth;
- standard size;
- with solid galvanized layer.
To mount a frame well from a drywall profile, you need to use high-quality parts.
Choosing them is quite difficult in itself. It is unacceptable to take profiles thinner than 0.55 mm. It is worth trying to use them, as soon you will find a quick erasure of the thread. It is best to go to the store with a caliper at the ready..
The next step in checking is to look for signs of rust.. But even if they are not there, you need to pay attention to the abundance of lubricant (almost always at the expense of it they try to mask the low quality of the element). If the profile is twisted or differs from the normal shape of the part, it is better to refuse to purchase it. When working, such designs will cause many problems. Screwing in self-tapping screws with your own hands will be easier if the notch is made as uniformly and efficiently as possible. Excessively large ribs on CD shelves are not allowed.
Even the best profiles cannot be screwed correctly if the fasteners are poor. Visual inspection of the tip is not enough, you should take a metal plate with you and try to wrap one or two screws in it.
The presence of fasteners with broken parts, poorly ground elements or poorly cut splines is unacceptable. It is undesirable to use profiles with burrs, dowel-nails with swollen plastic plugs. Only when everything is in order on all points, you can buy goods.
If it is decided to use wooden blocks for the frame, their moisture content should be from 12 to 18% (a lower value cannot be provided, a larger value devalues the whole work). First, the timber is laid horizontally and secured with anchors. Then they put the slats vertically and attach them to this bar. Approximately 1 cm should remain from the battens to the battens.In this case, the step between the vertical structures is 0.6 m.Before screwing the drywall, it is advisable to measure it again with a level to make sure that all parts are even.
The very description of the manipulations inevitable when choosing a frame method is simple. But since mistakes can be made at every step, and the total operating time is quite long, even professionals try to glue drywall at the slightest opportunity. The advantage of this option is that you can forget about finishing the frame and less noise, since most often you can do without a punch.
However, the adhesive bonding method has two sides..
Any internal work must be completed before gluing the sheet to the concrete..
A thin layer of glue will not be able to lay electrical wiring. Therefore, you will have to pick up a puncher and make the necessary strokes with it. After 40 – 50 cm, the wires should be fixed with special clamps. And you will also need to prepare nests for socket boxes (that is, you cannot do without a diamond crown).
But now all the work is finished (or there is no need for them on this wall). This does not mean that you can immediately do drywall.. The surface must be primed, and if the concrete is open, preparation is over. The situation with the walls painted with paint (especially oil paint) is much more complicated. Removing it with tools will inevitably create dust clouds, and the grinding discs will make noise again. Applying a primer directly on top of the paint and varnish material is much easier, but here no one will give a quality guarantee.
It is recommended to use soil compounds of the category concrete contact.
Fastening the sheets with glue must be carried out strictly in accordance with the instructions for it:
- Most mixtures are diluted in small portions so that the prepared composition does not have time to dry out while working with one sheet..
- It is necessary to smear the gypsum board with glue with a notched trowel, and to properly lay the composition means to smear it over the entire surface.
- Formally, you can only cover the perimeter and make a thick strip in the center, but the larger the adhesion area, the better..
Having attached the sheet to the wall, they do not immediately press it tightly, but look at the correct installation. And if necessary, they correct it. Leveling is carried out using a plastering rule, which should not be pressed too hard. Even at the preparation stage, it is required to remove all protruding screws and other fasteners. Brick base can be corrected with plaster from a mixture of cement and sand.
It is worth preparing the sheets to be installed in advance.. It is much easier to cut them to size and prepare holes in the floor than trying to do it on the wall. In apartments where the ceiling height is standard, a 250 cm long sheet will cover this entire gap. But if the room is higher, it is worth mounting the gypsum board horizontally.
When marking, pay attention to the fact that the number of joints is the smallest..
On any kind of walls that need to be aligned, they look for the 2 most embossed sections and connect them with a line. Then, retreating to the thickness of the sheet, they put a control mark. Using a level or a plumb line, you need to move these lines to the ceiling. Knowing that the relief is 5 mm or less, you need to cut the sheets to size, grease the back side with glue (it is applied with wide strokes around the perimeter and in the middle). You need to glue drywall from the corner. In rooms with the correct geometry, it is permissible to bend the sheets at a right angle at the joint points, sawing through the material with a cutter.
The linings placed at the bottom with a thickness of 10 – 15 mm must be removed on the second or third day, the gaps are filled with sealant. It is necessary to glue drywall only at temperatures from +15 to +20 degrees. In this case, the humidity coefficient should not exceed 70%. If the walls run almost straight, the curvature does not exceed 2 cm, work should be done in a slightly different way. The glue is laid out in the form of a kind of cakes with a diameter of 1.5 and a height of 2.5 cm.Each fragment should be higher than the existing defects, between them the gaps are 200 – 300 mm.
How to screw on self-tapping screws?
Screwing drywall onto self-tapping screws – you can quickly and reliably, if you strictly follow the technology. For this, it is not even necessary to prepare a special frame if the curvature of the walls is less than 5 cm.
Along with self-tapping screws, you can use:
- dowels (optimally for brick or concrete);
- screws (for metal with pre-drilled holes);
- nails (if the base is wooden).
Wood surfaces are preliminarily suspended with a plane or a small ax. To improve the base made of foam concrete, a perforator with a built-in chisel is used. Plasterboard sheets are placed with an interval of 250 – 350 mm, they are distributed along the wall in a checkerboard pattern. The caps of self-tapping screws and other fasteners are supposed to be embedded in the material. The hardware is supposed not to be tightened to the stop, so as not to damage the material.
- With a relatively large curvature of the surface, drywall should be glued using beacons, their width is 100 mm. These beacons form a kind of frame.
- At the intersection with the floor and under the ceiling itself, horizontal strips should be glued. The role of these stripes is to provide a landmark. The vertical lines departing from the contour lines will become a crate. All elements are checked by level until the glue mass has hardened..
- You can save drywall if, instead of splitting the sheet into strips, dissolve it into neat squares. In the absence of factory chamfers, subsequent finishing (painting) is carried out only after cutting them with a knife. The joints of the sheets are supposed to be filled with a specialized putty.
- If you choose not gluing, but fastening with self-tapping screws, the length of the screw for these parts should allow them to go through the skin completely and fix on the crate.
- The most practical self-tapping screws are drill screws. Their diameter is 0.39 cm, and their length is 0.95 cm.These structures can be screwed into the frame itself.
For information on whether it is possible to glue drywall on foam, see the next video.