When carrying out repair work, it is very difficult to do without putty. This material helps to get rid of imperfections on different surfaces and, as a result, make them completely even..
The putty is easy and convenient to use, but there are certain rules and nuances in working with it that you need to know and take into account.
Features of mixing compositions
In order for the walls and ceiling in the room to have a beautiful and even appearance, putty will be the main material for their processing. It is this mixture that allows you to achieve the desired result. In cases where the working surface is small and there is little work, you can purchase a ready-made mixture, which is diluted in the correct consistency and is ready to work..
If you need to revet all the walls, and maybe also the ceiling, it is much more profitable to buy a dry mixture, dilute it and carry out repair work.
Based on the types of work that will be performed, starting and finishing putty can be used. If the mixture is diluted for rough work, then the composition will have a certain consistency..
There are two options for obtaining a ready-made solution:
- using a power tool;
- preparing the solution manually.
If there is a construction mixer available, then the work on preparing the putty solution will go quickly, efficiently, and most importantly, a large amount of work can be done immediately. For this you will need a dry and clean container where water is poured, and only then the dry mixture is added. The number of ingredients should be read on the package and the composition should be adjusted as it is prepared..
When the ingredients are ready, use a mixer to mix them for at least two minutes..
As soon as the solution is obtained, it is recommended to leave it for fifteen minutes and, after the expiration of the period, stir again. Working in this mode, it is important to tune the tool to a speed not higher than 800, otherwise the finished mass will be saturated with oxygen more than normal, which will make its structure porous, and therefore not strong.
Manual dilution of the putty is different from automatic mixing. First of all, you need to pour the solution, and then add water and mix everything thoroughly. The infusion process in this case is only three minutes., after which, using a spatula, everything is mixed and the material is ready for work.
The finishing putty is kneaded in almost the same way, forming an optimal consistency, not liquid and not too thick.
For woodwork, it is especially important to properly knead the solution, because it is necessary to create the structure of the material, and then form the required appearance of the surface.
If during plastering there is a concern that the surface may crack, it is advisable to use fiberglass, which has a very thin but strong structure and prevents any changes in the structure of the wall.
What should be the solution?
The final result of the repair will depend on the quality of the putty and the ability to dilute it correctly. In order for the work to proceed quickly and efficiently, the consistency of the putty must have elastic and plastic characteristics. Ease of application to the surface is one of the main qualities that allows you to quickly carry out all the work.
If the material sticks to the spatula and rolls up into a tube instead of being evenly applied to the surface, it means that it was thrown up incorrectly..
When spreading the putty, it is important to do this carefully, without missing any dry areas, so that pebbles or hardening do not form in the future..
In order to properly dilute the required mixture, you must carefully read the instructions, where the manufacturer, taking into account the characteristics of his material, suggests the amount of ingredients and the necessary proportions.
In the conditions of the repair of the premises, you may need a thicker or liquid solution for certain works, therefore you need to know the conditions for its receipt.
When carrying out the breeding process with your own hands, it is important to keep the container clean, where the putty and spatula will be kneaded, because any debris will cause the solution to dry much faster and part of the mass will remain in the form of fossils on the walls of the container. Too much solution in this case is impractical to do, because after twenty minutes it will still begin to dry out.
So that the finished putty surface does not crack, you need to properly process the wall and make the desired solution.
When it comes to finishing putty, the mixing technology is practically the same, but in this case, you need to take even more care of the cleanliness of the container and tool. During stirring after settling, you need to check the nozzle for any debris, and during stirring, make sure that there are no hardens in the mass, pieces that do not stir.
After each dilution, the nozzle is completely washed out, as well as the container in which the dilution is carried out.. In order to correctly make a mixture for wall putty, you must adhere to the instructions on the package and follow the technology in which the inventory must be clean, and the materials must be specially selected for a certain type of surface..
In order to properly dilute the putty, you need to read the recommendations that the manufacturer leaves on the packaging. It is important to work with a moderate amount of the mixture so that it does not have time to freeze. After the initial mixing, putty must be set aside for swelling. At this moment, in no case should you add water to the container..
To know how quickly the finished mixture will dry, you need to take into account the temperature in the room and the density of the resulting solution.. The thicker it is, and the temperature is higher, the faster the putty will dry. You should pay attention to these nuances so as not to waste an extra amount of materials in vain..
To dilute the putty for the walls should be based on proportions. Usually a bag of 25 kilograms is used and ten liters of water are taken to mix it..
If there is a need to apply several layers, then it is important to make the solution like this, so that it dries more slowly. For this function, river sand is used, which must be previously cleaned of debris and dirt.. The proportion of its addition to the putty is equal to its mass part – by mixing the components in a 1: 1 ratio, you can get the desired effect.
Stir the dry mixture with a nozzle, at the end of mixing it is necessary to pour a tablespoon of PVA glue into the container. With this component, after settling, the mass will receive an even greater percentage of elasticity and softness., which will help you more comfortably cope with the task of plastering walls.
After settling together with the glue for fifteen minutes, you need to mix well again..
Having putty from different companies available, you can mix it, the main thing is that it should be either starting or finishing. An expensive mixture can be mixed with a cheaper one, which ultimately will give a fairly strong material., which will serve well on wall surfaces. There are no mixing proportions as such, it all depends on the amount of materials available and the area of \ u200b \ u200bthe room for repair.
How to breed?
The process of diluting plaster begins with the preparation of equipment that may be needed in the work. It is important to clean and wash all components, because the putty does not tolerate dirt and dries quickly with any dirt.
From the tool, you must have:
- Mixing container. Any bucket will do that can be washed quickly and efficiently and where it will be convenient to mix the solution several times.
- Power tool, into which the nozzle will be inserted. This can be a screwdriver or drill, to which the corresponding part is selected..
- Putty knife. It is better to prepare tools of different widths so that you can conveniently mix the mixture, apply it to the wall and level it.
- Water. You need to use clean running water, no impurities, no foreign odors and no unusual color.
- Dry putty solution. For a certain stage of work, either starting or finishing putty is selected.
If the whole tool is ready, you can start the process of mixing the finished solution and applying it to the wall surface. Using a nozzle significantly speeds up the process, but you can do a good job without it.
In order for the process to go right, you must adhere to a clear plan of action:
- Choose a dry putty of a certain brand in the right amount, read the instructions and start the dilution process. Standard ratios are 25 kilograms of powder mixture per 10 liters of water. Each manufacturer reserves the right to change these proportions in any direction..
- Water is poured into a clean container, for a building bucket it is 1/4, and for a regular one – 1/3 of the total volume of the container.
- Putty should be added to the water, pouring it right in the center of the bucket until it becomes 1/4 more than the water level. Some packages indicate the norms for the amount of substance that must be poured in during the first batch..
- You should not immediately start mixing the mass, otherwise some of the material will be scattered around the room. After waiting about thirty seconds, you can get to work. During this time, the putty mass will sink under the water and will be ready for processing..
- Using a nozzle on a screwdriver or drill, you need to stir the contents of the container for at least two minutes until a homogeneous mass is formed, resembling thick sour cream.
- If the resulting mass deviates from the required proportions, it is necessary to pour in a little water or add a certain amount of solution and mix everything again. It is important to achieve the desired result precisely at this stage, because further nothing can be changed..
- After preliminary mixing, the putty mixture remains for a while to swell. The time depends on the amount of material and can range from a few minutes to 10-15.
- When the time is up, you will need to re-mix the entire contents. In this case, all the same rules work as for the first time..
- To find out if the mixture is ready, you need to insert a spatula into it. If he did not drown or get stuck, then everything was done correctly..
At home, there is not always a nozzle and a power tool, with the help of which you can easily and quickly make a putty solution, therefore these works can be done by hand. Preparing the mixture in this way is not much more difficult, although it will take a little longer. In order to manually knead the putty, you need to know the sequence of actions, which is slightly different from the one described earlier..
- The first stage will consist in the fact that you need to pour putty into an absolutely dry bucket, and then add water. If you do the opposite, then lumps cannot be avoided and the resulting solution will not fit well on the wall..
- As soon as it turned out to achieve the desired consistency, the rest of the putty is poured into the container and water is also poured in stages. Gradually the dry mass turns into elastic and pliable.
- It is necessary to collect seven spatulas of the mixture into the container and pour a little water into it. The resulting mass should be mixed well. Each time adding water, the mass is mixed and brought to the required state.
The putty is used for different surfaces and, according to the principle of action, it can be divided into such types as:
If it is necessary to knead the cement putty, then the dry mixture is also placed in a dry and clean bucket, into which water is then added. In this case, it is also worth paying attention to the proportions declared by the manufacturers and, based on them, knead the solution. The consistency in this case should be similar to thick sour cream.
The same methods are used to work with gypsum plaster. A distinctive feature of this material is its fairly quick drying, because the time it is necessary to take no more than three minutes for swelling and it is better not to delay the process of working with walls.
For this type of putty, it is especially important to use the required proportions of the components for preparation, otherwise the coating will crack over time. To avoid this, you need to carefully read the instructions and adhere to them, use the correct mixing methods, thoroughly clean the walls before use and apply a layer of more than 5 mm.
Polymer putty can be latex, acrylic or polymer-cement. The latex version is sold ready-made, but during storage it often becomes thick, so it must be mixed with water in a 1: 1 ratio. The preparation of such a putty is done taking into account the recommendations of the manufacturers, but it is better to look at the consistency of the finished product. If you need to add water, then it is better to do it right in the process..
Acrylic putty is sold ready-made, therefore, in this case, you do not need to spend time preparing it. The cost of such a product is several times higher than the dry mix, but a number of advantages make it popular and in demand..
Polymer cement putty is sold in powder form and needs to be prepared for use. For a kilogram of the mixture, you need to take 240 ml of water and mix everything well. The mass should be homogeneous, without lumps.. Consistency depends on the type of work.
To fill cracks, you need to make a thick mass, and to apply on walls a more liquid.
When planning to dilute the putty for external or internal work to level the surface of the walls and ceiling, you need to know some of the nuances due to which the process of preparing the mass and working with it will be easier and faster.
All containers and tools must be clean so that there are no traces of dirt or particles of other building material on them.. All additives will cause the putty to harden more quickly and will be difficult to work with.. You need to wash everything, and knead a new portion of the mixture, otherwise the dried lumps will damage the finished surface.
The optimal amount of solution is that which will be enough for a half-hour work process., otherwise, the putty will begin to dry out and it will be very difficult to apply it. By making the mixture too thick, its service life will be significantly reduced. A very thin solution will spread on the wall, leaving streaks and stains that are difficult to remove..
If the solution is prepared, settled and mixed again, then no ingredients can be added to it.. It is important to carefully choose the dry mix itself in the store, paying attention to the expiration dates, which in this case are of great importance..
When mixing the dry mixture and water using a nozzle, you need to select low revolutions, otherwise air gets into the material, the bubbles of which on the surface of the wall will leave irregularities and they will have to be additionally sanded.
It is possible to mix without a mixer, using a medium-width spatula for mixing. In this case, it is important to follow the correct sequence of actions..
If for mixing with an electric appliance, water is poured, and then putty is poured, then in the manual version the opposite is true. After pouring a certain amount of putty, a small amount of water must be added to it. The mixing process is phased, it is important not to rush and mix all the contents well so that there are no lumps left that will significantly interfere with the process of applying the mixture to the wall surface.
Building materials are renewed annually; powder versions of putties are replaced by pasty ones, which are sold ready-made. You can and should use them, the main thing is to choose a trusted manufacturer, look at the date of manufacture and, if necessary, dilute a little with water.
The cost of such products is much higher, but there are no costs for preparing the mixture, you do not need to have additional inventory with you and the work process can be started from the moment the container itself is opened.
The starting putty has the function of a surface corrector, therefore it is often applied in a thick layer. To make it more convenient to work, the work is carried out in two stages. The first involves grouting all cracks and irregularities and preliminary processing of the wall, and the second already more carefully hides all the imperfections and forms an even canvas. It is important to wait until the first layer is completely dry, and then apply the second.
The finishing putty is applied in a thin layer, and after using it, the walls are rubbed, finally leveling.
For information on how to properly dilute the putty, see the next video.