One of the stages of construction or repair work is the sealing of joints or cracks. As a rule, this is done using special compounds – sealants. An acrylic-based compound is a universal sealant characterized by high technical characteristics and environmental friendliness..
What it is?
Acrylic, or rather, polymethyl acrylate in the composition of an aqueous dispersion is considered one of the simplest plastics and acts as the basis for acrylic sealant. In addition, there are thickeners (provide the desired consistency of the composition), fillers and plasticizers (due to their presence, the specified characteristics of the sealant are achieved). When some of them are combined, abundant foam is formed, to eliminate which manufacturers are forced to add antifoam agents. In addition, the composition contains surfactants (surfactants) and antiseptics, as well as an ammonia solution.
A special feature of acrylic sealant is its water content, which begins to evaporate after application. After the evaporation process is completely completed, the seam polymerizes and hardens.
Acrylic based sealant designed to fill small cracks and gaps. However, most acrylic fillers are intended for indoor use. The insignificant changes in temperature and humidity inherent in the premises are not terrible for the sealant, which cannot be said about the effect of negative temperatures. In this case, the seam becomes excessively hard, loses its elasticity, which, in turn, leads to its cracking. However, today on the construction market you can find modifications that can be operated at temperatures of -20 … +70 degrees.
The formed seam is characterized by elasticity, resistance to vibration and mechanical stress. The standard composition is available in white or transparent, after hardening, the surface can be plastered or painted. Several brands produce colored sealants, including those imitating different types of wood. Such compositions are indispensable in cases where it is required to create an inconspicuous seam, indistinguishable in shade from those surfaces that it joins.
The form of release of the composition is small tubes (they are convenient to use with a small amount of work, for small cracks, the sealant is squeezed out of the tube directly into the gap), tubes or cartridges (the use of an assembly gun is implied) or a plastic bucket (it is profitable to buy it for large areas, the seams are filled with a spatula).
Advantages and disadvantages
Advantages of acrylic sealant:
- Versatility. The ability to use on different types of surfaces.
- Good adhesion performance. It is largely due to this that the versatility of the composition is achieved – the sealants reliably adhere to both porous and smooth surfaces..
- Environmentally friendly, due to the fact that the water-based composition does not contain toxins, in this regard, the product does not emit a strong unpleasant odor during application or drying.
- Fire safety. Due to the absence of solvents in the composition, acrylic sealants are of the NG class, that is, non-combustible.
- Ease of application. Due to the convenient form of release, the material is easy to apply, it is easy to remove the product in liquid form with a rag, and when it is frozen, it can be cut off with a knife..
- High steam permeability, due to which the product can be used for sealing joints in frames, between elements of window openings – excess water vapor will be removed from the room.
- UV resistant.
Acrylic based sealants will not yellow or crack when exposed to sunlight.
- The ability to paint the seam, as well as a variety of color modifications of the composition, due to which a high aesthetic appeal of the treated surfaces is achieved.
- Easy to apply – can be done directly from the tube or using a sealant gun.
- Availability of the composition. Compared to silicone sealant, acrylic is much cheaper.
One of the most noticeable disadvantages of a sealant is its inability to resist moisture., which is due to its water-dispersion composition. At the same time, some packages are labeled “moisture resistant”. Is there a contradiction here?
The fact is that the frozen seam is not afraid of a slight effect of moisture (the amount of water vapor that is present inside the room with normal humidity). But with prolonged contact with moisture or its increased content in the air, adhesion, and then other characteristics of the composition, begin to decrease. Thus, it turns out that the composition is not suitable for sealing joints in the bathroom, kitchen, washing, swimming pools; not intended for outdoor use and not suitable for gluing objects and surfaces that contain water.
Acrylic sealant is divided into 2 large groups – one-component and two-component composition. The first is the ready-to-apply mass. The second one includes 2 components, which must be mixed before use until a homogeneous consistency.
One-component composition is universal, while it is afraid of moisture exposure, cracks at low temperatures. It is best used for sealing joints exclusively indoors with normal humidity levels. Such seams are optimal for painting, the coloring composition lays down in an even layer, without changing the shade during the drying process.
To obtain a composition with higher technical properties, it is possible to add other components to it, primarily silicone or latex, as well as hydrophobizing compositions. For example, the presence of latex in the acrylic sealant makes it possible to obtain a frost-resistant product. This allows it to be used for outdoor use..
Siliconized two-component sealant is characterized by increased adhesion. The silicone in the composition allows for bonding surfaces with smooth, sliding surfaces. First of all, it is plastic.
However, such a composition turns out to be indispensable for sealing gaps on overly porous surfaces..
The advantage of acrylic-silicone compounds is their increased resistance to precipitation and temperature extremes. The presence of silicone increases the elasticity of the sealant by about 20-25%, so it better tolerates low temperatures. In this regard, this composition is also suitable for outdoor use..
To prevent excessive viscosity of the composition with silicone, the addition of organic extenders allows, and the addition of fungicides allows increasing the resistance of the sealant to aggressive environmental influences. The result is a more durable joint that is not only resistant to weathering, but also chemically inert. In this regard, such a sealant was named “professional”.
Other types of two-component sealants are considered professional., characterized by improved technical characteristics. As a rule, they are more difficult to apply, have a higher cost, therefore, for domestic purposes, their use is irrational..
They show good adhesion to surfaces made of concrete, brick, plastic, glass, as well as on plastered surfaces, and are suitable for repairing window and door frames. After hardening can be painted with latex or oil paints.
In addition, acrylic sealants are water-resistant and non-water-resistant.. The latter are absolutely safe from the point of view of environmental friendliness, but are only suitable for dry rooms. They cannot be used in joints subject to thermal expansion and deformation..
The water-resistant composition has special additives, which is why it cannot be called 100% natural (however, it is suitable for use in residential buildings). Demonstrates high adhesion to most building materials, including textures of different composition, as well as in sedentary structures. Can be used in humid environments, but not in direct contact with liquid.
Usually, antiseptic additives are present in the composition of moisture-resistant acrylic sealants that prevent the appearance of mold and microorganisms on the surface of the seams..
Another criterion for dividing acrylic sealants into groups is the presence or absence of pigment in them. The standard composition is transparent or white. If a certain pigment is added, then the shade can be any. Such a paint sealant allows you to quickly eliminate small cracks without using other compositions..
A separate group is made up of compounds that imitate noble wooden surfaces..
Acrylic rubber sealant is used for grouting wood surfaces, and also suitable for use in inter-row joints of log houses. It allows you to get a warm and reliable seam, is not afraid of temperature changes in the geometry of the wood. As a rule, such a sealant is laid on top of the mezhventsovy insulation. Its shade is matched to the tone of the log house.
When added to the composition of fire retardants and other components, it is possible to obtain a fireproof sealant. As you know, the acrylic one-component composition itself is non-combustible, however, the presence of certain additives in its two-component analogue can change the situation. A feature of a fire-fighting (both one and two-component) composition is its ability to localize the spread of flame.
The standard shade of acrylic based sealant is white or clear. But sometimes it is necessary to obtain a seam of a certain shade, which will suit the rest of the surfaces..
In this case, there are 2 ways of solving – to purchase a colored sealant or paint the frozen joint with paint of a suitable color. The palette of most manufacturers includes the most common solid colors – gray, beige, green, blue, brown and even black..
If the seam is laid in wooden surfaces, then it is better to choose a composition for one or another type of wood. Today, sealants are produced in the shades of oak, cherry, birch, wenge. At the same time, a high-quality product guarantees maximum closeness with a natural shade..
If you need to get a complex shade or color that passes one into another, it is better to paint the seam after it has completely solidified.. To do this, you should choose a water-based paint. If it is not sold ready-made, you can use white paint by tinting it with special compounds.
The second method of obtaining a seam of a certain shade is more laborious and costly, however, this is the only way to obtain complex or unusual shades, as well as graduated staining.
Painting, as already mentioned, is possible only after polymerization of the seam, otherwise the liquid included in the acrylic paint will wash out the seam.
To obtain a better, smoother coating, before painting, the seam surface should be lightly treated with fine “sandpaper”.
Famous manufacturers and reviews
Today, among the reputable manufacturers whose products have won positive customer reviews, there are several.
- “Novbytkhim”. This St. Petersburg company has more than 15 years of history and specializes in the production of paints and varnishes, mastics and sealants, including acrylic.
The high quality of the formulations is due to the use of the latest scientific developments in the production process.
Respect for customers is also achieved due to the manufacturer’s price loyalty – its products are available to the general population. So, for example, the price of a universal white acrylic sealant produced in a 50-mg tube is 30-50 rubles.
- Zigger. Composition from a German manufacturer, characterized by high quality and average price. Production is carried out exclusively within Germany, which eliminates the risk of quality deterioration and low-grade products entering the market.
A one-component composition for laminate flooring has become widespread, which is supplied in a cartridge of 310 mg and is available in a gray shade, and also imitates the colors of natural wood (oak, cherry, beech, birch). Average cost – in the range of 150-180 rubles per tube.
For sealing joints on the wall surface, it is better to use a special white or transparent compound, on the packaging of which there is a litter “for building structures”. Its price is within 100 rubles for a tube of 310 ml.
- Henkel. Another composition of German production, which is produced in factories in Germany, as well as in many countries of the world, including Russia. The most famous silicone sealants are Moment and Moment Herment. Both are produced in Russia, are frost-resistant, have a low cost (90-120 rubles for 420 g). The first modification is recommended for filling seams of inactive structures, the second – for sealing and joining the surfaces of walls, walls and window, doorways, floor repair.
- Belinka. A brand from Slovenia, whose products comply with European quality and safety standards. There is a universal composition for fixed building structures, as well as a parquet agent. Both formulations are available in 300 ml tubes and the floor sealant is available in several shades..
Average cost – from 100 to 150 rubles.
- Loctite. A well-known Russian manufacturer, under the brand name of which sealants are produced, including those based on acrylic – PL S50. It is a frost-resistant mass for application into gaps and joints of concrete, brick, wooden surfaces and other stationary (inactive) building structures. Produced in a bucket with a volume of 420 g, for which you will have to pay about 90-100 rubles.
- Makroflex. Finnish trade mark. The two-component composition (acrylic-latex) is suitable not only for indoor but also outdoor use. Refers to the middle price category – 90-100 rubles for a container of 300 ml.
- Penosil. Russian product with several modifications. Thus, the one-component sealant “Cosmofen ca 1” is distinguished by its versatility of use, and due to improved adhesion it can also be used as an adhesive. Available in small (20 and 50 g) tubes.
For fixing plastic elements, the manufacturer offers the “Cosmofen plus hv” version, which is also characterized by increased resistance to temperature changes. Available in tubes or tubes of 200 ml.
For application on PVC and foam surfaces, you can purchase “Cosmofen plus-s” in a 200 ml container.
- “Accent”. A domestic product that also has several options depending on the scope of application. So, one-component “Accent 117” is distinguished by its versatility and is suitable even for application to external surfaces. The modification marked with the number 124 is siliconized, therefore it is used both inside and outside the object, it is suitable for expansion joints, withstands increased loads and vibration. Can be used in domestic and industrial facilities.
Variant 128 is characterized by high vapor permeability, which makes it optimal for use on wood, and also in places with high humidity. There are also special modifications for wooden coatings – these are Accent 136, 140 and 125. The latter is intended exclusively for professional use, the rest can be used both for domestic and industrial needs. For wide joints on wooden surfaces, it is better to use a more elastic sealant 136. And the best moisture resistant and antiseptic properties are characterized by the sealant “Accent 140”.
Unlike others, it is applied with a brush to the entire surface and protects it from moisture and the environment..
- Ramsauer 160 Acryl. Composition from a premium German manufacturer. Differs in versatility of application, higher polymerization rate, richness of color palette.
Selection and scope
The main area of use is filling seams on the surface, as well as joining various movable and fixed surfaces. A one-component composition is used to eliminate cracks on the surface of walls, as well as at the joints of walls and window sills, window and door openings. Often, the composition is purchased for sealing joints between concrete or stone surfaces, plastic bases, wooden coatings.
Restore furniture, parquet, fill the voids between the elements of the laminate – a universal sealant on acrylic will cope with all this. It is also suitable for PVC panels and tiles, providing a surface seal and invisible element joints..
The advantage of the composition is its ability to fill the seams between dissimilar materials. So, the sealant is often used to eliminate the junction between the tile and the pipe..
Acrylic-based sealant is used not only as a means of sealing and eliminating cracks. It can also act as a building glue, for example, for fixing ceiling skirting boards and moldings. For this, the composition is applied directly to the back of the decorative element, and the wall surface is slightly moistened with water. After that, it is enough to attach the plinth or baguette to the wall and press it a little.
If polystyrene foam tiles are used for finishing the ceiling, the sealant is useful for sealing the joints between them. Unlike silicone sealant, which can also be used for this purpose, the acrylic analogue is environmentally friendly and can be painted..
If a composition with increased moisture-resistant properties is used (they contain a small amount of silicone), then it can be used in rooms with high humidity, where the seam does not come into contact with water, for example, in the relaxation room of a bath or changing rooms adjacent to a pool or shower.
The advantage of acrylic sealant when used in such places is the presence of antifungal and antiseptic components in the composition, which prevents the appearance of mold and mildew on the surface of the seam..
When choosing a sealant, like any building compound, it is important to consider the scope of its application..
Only with this approach will the composition reveal all its qualities and be durable..
So, for plastic substrates that usually have smooth surfaces, you should purchase a sealant with increased adhesion. You can do with a universal modification, but pre-treat the working bases with a primer.
If you plan to use the sealant in an aggressive environment (primarily with high air humidity), then it must contain fungicides. Such a product is suitable for filling joints in the pool, bathroom, shower, but its use in the kitchen (especially in places of contact with food) should be discarded.
To seal joints at elevated temperatures (for example, in a dressing room), you should choose compounds that can withstand heating up to +300 degrees. Today, there are even fire-resistant sealants on sale with heat resistance indicators up to +1500 degrees. Undoubtedly, such compositions are suitable for sealing cracks on the surface of stoves, fireplaces and various heating devices..
It is important to check the shelf life of the composition and the integrity of its packaging.. The study of certificates of conformity will allow you to verify the originality of the purchased product and its quality. Before buying them, be sure to ask the seller for them..
If the sealant will be used on visible surfaces, it is important to ensure that it does not compromise the aesthetic appeal of the surfaces. To do this, make sure that the hardened seam can be painted. Otherwise, you can choose a colored sealant. When applied, it usually looks darker than the manufacturer promised. However, as it dries, the seam brightens a little..
You do not need to have professional skills to apply the composition. It is important to pre-clean and dry the surface of the seam, then fill it with a sealant, squeezing the latter out of the gun or immediately from the tube.
Seams that are too deep require more compound, which entails additional costs and increases the curing time of the seam. This can be avoided by first placing an elastic seal in the form of a polyethylene cord on the bottom of the deep gap..
To achieve an optimal positive result will allow following certain recommendations when applying the composition:
- Work can be carried out at a temperature of -40 … +120 degrees, while the temperature of the working surfaces should be within + 4 … +32 degrees.
- Sealant suitable for gaps between 6 mm – 5 cm.
For wider gaps, it is better to pre-use a sealing cord..
- When applying sealant in conditions of high humidity at the time of solidification of the composition, it is better to cover the working surface of polyethylene.
- When applying the composition in a humid environment, you can use the room only after the joint has hardened. At the time of solidification, the effect of moisture on the seam is unacceptable – the liquid will simply wash it away.
- For staining the seam, latex compounds should be selected, the staining procedure can be performed 21-30 days after using the sealant. It is recommended to sand the surface beforehand. Only a completely dry seam can be skinned..
- It is better to use the opened packaging completely. It is permissible to store the composition in a closed form if the original packaging is broken for 2-4 days. After this time, the properties of the sealant deteriorate..
- It is not necessary to add solvent or other components to the acrylic sealant, unless provided by the instructions. A two-component composition is kneaded from 2 components, while in most cases it is necessary to mix both compositions completely, without leaving a part for subsequent use. Violation of the proportions in this case entails a deterioration or complete loss of its properties by the sealant..
The shelf life of the composition in sealed original packaging is one year at a storage temperature of 20-22 degrees. Freezing of the product and its subsequent use is inadmissible.
If the product gets on adjacent surfaces, they can be immediately washed off with a damp cloth.. If you haven’t and the sealant remains, you can use a razor or utility knife. Place the tip parallel to the sealant mark and carefully cut it off. You do not need to drive the tip over the surface – scratches will appear. The remains of the composition are washed off with a damp cloth.
In addition, you can dissolve stains with special products for acrylic compounds. Manufacturers advise using a mask and gloves during work. Typically, thinner is applied to dried spots and left on for 30 minutes. After the specified time, the stain is removed with a damp cloth.
Before using the solvent, make sure that it will not damage the material to which it is applied..
To do this, apply a small amount of solvent to the sample or in an inconspicuous place. If after half an hour no negative impact is found, you can use the composition on the main area.
For how to use acrylic sealant, see the next video..