Poultry can provide not only eggs, but also delicious dietary meat. For normal life in the chicken coop, it is necessary to maintain a comfortable microclimate. This problem becomes especially urgent with the approach of cold weather, since in summer natural ventilation can be dispensed with. There are several ways to ventilate at low air temperatures outside. When implementing each of them, it is necessary to take into account many important nuances..
Features and requirements
Regardless of the size of the chicken coop, ammonia vapors invariably accumulate in it.. Without proper ventilation, they negatively affect the health of birds.. Both heat and cold have a negative effect on eggs. That is why the ventilation system is an integral part of any poultry house..
It is extremely difficult to maintain comfortable air humidity without a hood.. In the winter season, birds do not go for a walk, therefore, a large concentration of carbon dioxide accumulates in the chicken coop. All this creates a favorable environment for the emergence and further multiplication of harmful bacteria. To eliminate unpleasant consequences for birds, you need to take care of creating good ventilation in advance..
The ventilation system installed in the chicken coop must meet a number of requirements. The most important are:
- continuous supply of fresh oxygen to the premises;
- minimal risk of drafts;
- only high-quality materials should be used during construction.
Before installing ventilation, it is important to rid the room of rodents, if any. This is necessary in order to exclude them from entering the system..
Air exchange in the hen house can be organized in several ways. If desired, you can use different options at the same time.. The division into types is carried out according to the following criteria:
- the way of air circulation (artificial and natural);
- purpose (supply and exhaust, supply, exhaust);
- location (zonal and general exchange).
Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. To determine the best option, you should study them in more detail..
Natural ventilation of the house is considered one of the simplest in terms of the scheme. Her work is based on the laws of physics. So, warm air always rises, and cold air, on the contrary, descends.. Natural ventilation, in turn, falls into two categories:
- organized – air circulates through specially created holes;
- unorganized – air exchange occurs through the window and the existing slots.
But even the simplest system cannot be based on air outlet alone. So, the influx of new air masses should appear in the room from somewhere. If the chicken coop is built well without any cracks, then the air will flow in insufficient quantities (even if the window is open). In this case, it no longer makes sense to discuss the unorganized option, you should go to the organized.
It is possible to organize the flow of air if special duct devices (exhaust and supply) are installed in the walls or roof of the chicken coop. The supply air must be installed a few centimeters higher than the supply air supply (again, following simple laws of physics). Such a device will create a favorable climate in the barn for chickens. But it has one drawback..
It lies in the absolute dependence on the temperature conditions outside.. So, if the air temperature outside exceeds the temperature in the hen house, the air exchange will work in the opposite direction. In the so-called standing weather, the exchange of air between the chicken coop and the external environment will be scanty..
This system is more suitable for small poultry houses, while forced ventilation is the best option for larger poultry houses..
To assemble the device and bring it into working form you will need:
- knee with an angle of 90 degrees;
- straight pipe (it is better to choose the option with a diameter of 100-110 mm);
- installation tools.
Through the drilled hole, the pipe with the help of an elbow must be brought out into the street. The insulated vertical section should be installed at least 1 meter above the roof level. It is best to process the joints with polyurethane foam, and fix the pipe itself with clamps. It is imperative to put on a deflector on the outer cut of the pipe. As a result, high-quality ventilation should be obtained without heat loss..
Supply and exhaust
The supply and exhaust air exchange system, in comparison with the previous version, has a more complex scheme. It is best installed in a chicken coop with an area of at least 12 square meters. There are many assembly options, but if you do not have the proper skills, it is better to use the simplest one.. It consists of several successive stages..
- Immediately before the installation of the system, it is necessary to carefully plan its location, in particular, to determine the place for the exit of the pipeline. You can lead pipes through the roof or walls – here the choice depends only on individual preferences or characteristics of the room. But in either case, installation is possible at any time of the year..
- Next, you need to take care of preparing the necessary materials and tools. For work, you will need: two identical pipes with a length of at least 2 meters and a diameter of about 20 cm. Experts recommend using pipes with a circular cross section for this purpose, since they can create the most favorable circulation.
- Stock up insulation for pipes, as well as elbows with an angle of 90 degrees. You will also need clamps or some other clamps to choose from, a deflector, foam and ventilation grills in the amount of 2 pieces.
Following the scheme, it will be easy to assemble such ventilation..
Mechanical ventilation implies inlet and outlet duct sweeps. But in this case, an important addition is the fan, which is responsible for the main function of the device. Devices such as air purifiers, filters, heaters, air humidifiers and much more can be installed in the system as additional accessories.. The functionality of this type of construction can be roughly divided into several categories:
- air leaves the house, creating a vacuum, clean air is automatically sucked in to replace it;
- operating at overpressure (relevant for poultry farms of old buildings) – in this case, air enters the room in excess, while it undergoes various processes: heating, cleaning, humidification;
- operating at equal pressure – ventilation devices are equipped with both air intake and return air outlet.
Positive aspects of forced ventilation should be noted:
- powerful air exchange;
- the possibility of installation in a chicken coop of any area;
- the ability to purify the air from harmful microorganisms due to special filters (provided that they are installed).
Among the disadvantages, the most significant are the high cost of equipment and the relatively complex installation of the system..
The system consists of several elements:
- duct fan;
- duct heater;
- filter cassette;
- check valve;
- air intake grille.
A detailed diagram of the assembly of this type of ventilation is shown in Figure 1. As an advanced model, you can install fans, the operation of which is controlled by a remote control.
Before installation work, you should prepare everything you need. Of course, during the work, the livestock should be removed from the poultry house.. The basic installation rules are as follows:
- if the chicken coop has a gable roof, then the chimney should not extend beyond the visor;
- for a poultry house with a flat shed roof, it will be correct to lower the hood 30-40 cm from the roof;
- it is necessary to place the supply and exhaust pipes on different sides of the room;
- from the street side, a small diameter hole must be drilled in the knee – it serves as a drain for accumulated condensate.
These recommendations should be followed when installing any ventilation system, regardless of its type..
How to do it yourself?
You can make almost any ventilation model with your own hands, if you have certain skills and take into account all the nuances. But for beginners in this business, it is better to start with a simple option. Without electricity, it is enough to ventilate from plastic windows or vents in the room. Such ventilation will be effective not only in summer, but also in winter..
To make simple and high-quality ventilation you will need:
- sewer pipe about 4 meters long and about 110 cm in diameter;
- plastic tee;
- rubber hose.
To collect condensate in the exhaust pipe, you need to make a hole, attach a fitting to it. A hose is put on it, one end of which should be lowered into the canister. It is easy to calculate the length of the hose – 1 meter is enough. Further, according to the prepared calculation, the pipe and bends are mounted. Manufacturing will take 1-2 hours depending on skills. If done correctly, the hood will work well and for a long time..
For information on how to make proper ventilation of the chicken coop with your own hands, see the next video..