The time has passed when the bath was needed only for taking water procedures. Today, the bathhouse is considered an obligatory attribute of any suburban area where you can meet and relax with friends and family..
Sometimes it replaces a full-fledged SPA-salon, so many people want to build a bathhouse on their site. But it is important to design the building in advance and take into account all the planning and design options for such a room..
The importance of good planning
It should be noted that the correct layout of the bath is already half the success. The transferred construction plan on paper can reduce costs and greatly facilitate work. And for this it is important not only to choose a suitable project and buy building materials, you must also follow all the rules so that in a few years you do not have to redo all the work again. Therefore, it is important to take into account many nuances, including the features of the site.
It is very important to determine the place on the site for the future bath, since the used water from the bath should not penetrate into the groundwater or the well.
The minimum distance from the building to clean ground water must be at least 5 meters.
And before the toilet or compost pit should be 8 meters long. In terms of fire safety the bathhouse should be at least 1 meter near the fence.
Windows should be facing the west side, in this case, maximum sunlight will penetrate into the room in the evening all year round.
If you plan to use the sauna not only in summer, but also in winter, then the entrance should be arranged on the south side, then you do not have to clear the doors from snow drifts too often, and they themselves will melt much faster.
If the site is located on the shore of a clean reservoir, then it is worth considering the option of building a bathhouse at a distance of 15-20 meters from the water. Every lover of contrast procedures will want to plunge into cool water after a hot steam room.
Just a couple of decades ago, the layout of a classic bathhouse included only two rooms – a steam room and a dressing room. But today, modern projects may include a separate washing department, a recreation area, a pool or plunge pool, a billiard room..
The main rules that must be taken into account when building a bath:
- The internal layout of the bath should be thought out to the smallest detail and include not only the marking of individual zones, but also the wiring and water supply diagram.
- A problem as small as a draft can ruin the whole sauna experience. Make sure that the rooms are always warm. And be sure to position the doors perpendicularly..
- To keep the heat in the steam room for a long time, it is necessary to choose the correct door design – it must be small and narrow. And most importantly, the door should not open into the steam room, but from it..
- Window openings in the break room can be large to allow maximum natural light. But in other rooms it is better to install windows 40×60 or 70×80 cm in size.In this case, it is worth choosing opaque frosted glass.
Modern baths can be roughly divided into several types:
- Dry – the humidity in such a steam room does not exceed 25%, and the air temperature can rise to 120 ° C. Such a bath is considered the hottest and not very popular among our compatriots..
- Wet – a classic Russian bath, the humidity in the steam room can rise up to 100%, and the temperature for comfortable heating, as a rule, ranges from 50 to 90 ° C, depending on the wishes of the attendants.
- Water – Turkish saunas are equipped with this type, the key role in this case is played directly by steam and humidity.
Any bath includes the required minimum of premises:
- Dressing room or vestibule – the place where you can leave things before going to the bathhouse. Also here you can store firewood for heating the stove and brooms.
- Steam room – this is the heart of any bath, it should heat up quickly and keep the heat for a long time. There are shelves and a stove here. Usually benches are located on three levels, so that on the first two you can sit, and on the third, which is twice as wide, to lie. The steam room should be located as far as possible from the front door. Its dimensions depend on how many people will be steaming in it at the same time, and, as a rule, there are no windows in the steam room..
- Washing room is present in the modern version, if the sewage system is thought out. There may be a full-fledged shower cabin here. To combine or share a bath and a washing room, everyone decides for himself. The country sauna is a single space in which they first take a steam bath and then immediately wash themselves. But this option seems inconvenient to many, therefore, most often in a modern Russian steam room, the washing room and the steam room are separated.
- Restroom. The arrangement of this room depends on the imagination and capabilities of the owners..
The size of the steam room plays an important role in the bath. For a Finnish sauna, a small steam room is most suitable, in which, as a rule, people sit on benches and move little. This cannot be said about the classic Russian bath, in which it is customary to steam with a fragrant broom, hence the required minimum for one person is about 2 m². It is worth adding here the dimensions of the stove, and no matter which stove you choose – wood, gas or electric – it is also important to understand that the distance from the stove to shelves and wooden walls must be at least 20 cm.
The necessary minimum for a bath is a vestibule, a steam room and a washing.
If the area allows, then you can additionally place a recreation area, a toilet and a place for a contrast shower.
But for many, the construction of a capital bath on the site is not affordable. And in this regard, there is a great alternative – mobile bath from a bar. It is a mobile structure in the form of a container on wheels. The interior setting is not much different from the traditional bath. And besides, the transportable sauna can be used not only in a suburban area, but also in any place: on an expedition, on a construction site or on a trip..
Choosing the optimal area
The optimal bath area directly depends on the number of people who will use the steam room at the same time. The desire to save money on building materials and firewood for the furnace is understandable, but do not allocate too little space for the steam room. There is a possibility that it will quickly overheat, and it will be uncomfortable to be in such a small steam room..
For comfortable use, experts recommend allocating 6 m² for one person.
As for the height of the ceilings in the steam room, the minimum allowed is 2.1 meters. If you make the room higher, then the steam will rise up and occupy the empty space..
If the area of the site does not allow, then you can build a small 2×2 or 2×4 bath, but in this case, the layout will include only the required minimum – a steam room and a dressing room.
This option is convenient only if the bath will be used during the warm season. For a comfortable stay, a bath can be combined with an outdoor terrace or veranda, in this case, a full rest room with sun loungers and a table can be outdoors.
To save space, in this case, a bench and hooks for clothes can be placed in a small dressing room. And yet it is advisable to allocate separate rooms for the steam room and the washing room, because not everyone can tolerate high temperatures with high humidity..
On the total area of the baths 4×7, 5×5 and 5×6 meters, the dressing room can be used as a recreation area. The door from the street can lead directly to a full-fledged room with sun loungers, chairs and a table. And you should immediately choose furniture that is resistant to changes in temperature and humidity..
You should also provide for heating in the room, otherwise the cold outside air will quickly cool the room when the door is opened. Even a small fireplace will help to correct the situation, which will make the interior more comfortable and homely. But if, according to the plan, only one stove is provided for complex heating, then it should be able to heat the entire space..
It is also a good idea to provide a ventilation system; alternatively, you can use a window to ventilate the room..
The rest room can occupy up to half of the total area of the entire building. And also it is imperative to install full-fledged changing rooms and storage space for clothes and towels..
A large family with children needs a large bath, especially if it will be used throughout the year. But even with a large total area of about 6×8 and 6×10 meters, you should not make the steam room too spacious. It is much easier to warm up a small room than a space of several squares..
The steam room can be designed for 2-3 people, which can comfortably sit on wooden benches.
It is wiser to set aside a large area for the washroom, in which children will enjoy splashing around in the water. Plus, the large wash area can also be used for laundry and other needs..
In a bath with a size of 8×8 or 9×8, you can provide all the necessary rooms for a comfortable stay. Up to 15 people can be inside such a bath at the same time.. In addition, with a well-thought-out layout, everyone will find a place where they can relax after the steam room, drink tea or even sit by the fireplace..
The classic sauna is built of wood. And the beauty of this material is that it is an environmentally friendly and breathable raw material. Coniferous trees are not suitable for building a bath, they release gluten during heating.
Aspen and linden are best, in addition to being very strong and reliable trees, they have aromatherapy effects when heated. You can use both timber and logs for the construction of walls.
Before starting work, it is advisable to dry all materials in the sun so that the humidity does not exceed 8%. It is necessary to treat the wood with special solutions that will protect the material from rotting and fungus..
Baths made of modern materials are also popular. For example, any buildings made of foam blocks are erected in a short time. The material keeps heat well, does not emit toxins when heated and is considered fireproof.
The easiest option is to order a frame bath. According to the project, it will be built in production, all the necessary elements will be adjusted to size, and then disassembled will be delivered to the site.
For any bath it is necessary to prepare monolithic reinforced concrete for the foundation, able to withstand an impressive load. The roof should be covered with tiles or corrugated board, the most affordable option is still roofing material.
For interior wall decoration, depending on the zone you can use lining, timber, rounded logs, stones, bricks, ceramic tiles, designed for bath rooms. And for internal floors – wooden beams.
It is recommended to lay tongue-and-groove boards on the floor with a thickness of 35-40 mm.. This coating perfectly absorbs moisture and does not slip. In the future, the wooden floor can be easily given the desired color..
It is not recommended to use plastic, metal, linoleum and other materials, which at elevated temperature and humidity can lead to dangerous situations. The most important thing is that the selected materials are practical, moisture resistant, environmentally friendly and resistant to steam..
Ideas for filling
Of the obligatory premises in the bath, the vestibule is considered, it should be in any capital structure. Its task is to prevent the cold outside air from cooling the interior of the bath. And, as a rule, such a room is not heated..
In a confined space, the vestibule can be made as a nook with two doors. But if you plan to use the bath only in the summer summer season, then there is no need for a vestibule.
The dressing room is categorized as optional space. She can be in the vestibule or dressing room. But in this case, it is worth deciding where the doors from the locker room will lead: to the washing room or the rest room. Moreover, each owner chooses a suitable option for himself..
A classic Russian bath involves combining a steam room with a washing. But many people find this solution inconvenient. If possible, it is necessary to equip the sink and steam room separately. In addition, this is a necessary rule for a Finnish sauna, the humidity in which should not exceed 25%..
Today, almost everyone can afford to build a bathhouse with a swimming pool. The pool can be located both under one roof and not far from the bath. Recently, ready-made designs of bowls with a depth of 1 meter or more have been in great demand.. If desired, interior decoration can be done with mosaic tiles, as well as installing interior lighting or hydromassage.
The most successful project can be considered if the room with the pool is a walk-through and has three doors at once, leading to the recreation room, steam room and washing room.
If the bath area does not allow placing a full-fledged pool, and the desire after the steam room to plunge into cool water takes over, then you can consider the option with a font.
Interesting projects include the construction of a bathhouse with a gazebo and barbecue under one roof. Undoubtedly, this is a good option for hospitable hosts. And if the area of the entire building allows, then a billiard room or a hookah room can be placed in the recreation room. And if you want to build a bath with a toilet, then in this case it is necessary to carry out a sewerage.
The interior furnishings should match your mood and wishes. And in order to facilitate the work, it is better to draw up a drawing and a construction plan in advance..
In most projects, the bath is decorated in light and calm colors, this option is considered the most suitable. And since the steam room is the heart of the bath, it is necessary to think over a harmonious and uniform style in all rooms. And do not forget that the interior should be functional, and not turn into an amateur museum..
A competent interior should also take into account the peculiarities of building materials, the arrangement of furniture and the placement of both auxiliary and decorative additional elements..
The most important thing is that the internal environment must meet fire safety requirements, and all parts must be resistant to high humidity and high temperatures. But all natural materials have a high price, so to save money, you can use materials that externally imitate timber.
In some areas, it is not always possible to allocate a large area for a bath, and in such cases, you can resort to a non-standard solution. An unusual option can be considered the project of a corner bath. Its main feature is that the rest room and the steam room are located above an angle of 90 degrees in relation to each other. Thus, the stove is located in the central part and is capable of heating all rooms at once, which is especially necessary in winter..
The most important decorations of a traditional bath are brooms, basins, hats and other necessary accessories for bath procedures. To decorate the walls, you can choose hunting trophies, paintings, place DIY furniture and accessories.
Do not use objects with sharp corners, and also avoid materials that become slippery when exposed to water.
The main thing is that the furniture is comfortable and allows you to relax and enjoy moments of calm and tranquility..
Beautiful examples for inspiration
You can build an ideal bathhouse yourself or order a ready-made complex – it all depends on your preferences and wishes. But a layman is unlikely to be able to recreate the masterpiece on his own, therefore For inspiration, we suggest considering the most successful and attractive options for planning a bath:
- Even at the stage of drawing up a plan, it is necessary to think over the lighting system. Do not use a large number of lighting fixtures. The atmosphere should be relaxing and the light should be soft and subdued..
- The rustic style is considered the most suitable for any sauna. In such an interior, massive wooden furniture with carved patterns, tablecloths and rugs are always appropriate. Such a bath looks not only colorful and cozy, but also practical..
- The layout of the two-story bathhouse looks gorgeous in any case. The first floor can be allocated for a steam room, a washing room, a swimming pool and a boiler room, and on the second floor it is permissible to place a relaxation room with a billiard room, a hookah room and a bar. In summer, the second floor can also be used as a seasonal or guest bedroom.
- In a one-story bath, there is not always a place for a spacious relaxation room, but in this case, you can arrange a terrace or a covered veranda for relaxation after the steam room. This option will be appreciated by lovers of full and comfortable outdoor recreation..
- Modern designers also offer to choose non-standard interiors when arranging a bath. So, for example, recently there have been projects created in the style of country and Provence.
- Also, for a classic bath, a setting in the spirit of Alpine mountain houses is suitable – chalet style. Walls made of timber and logs, a ceiling made of massive beams and raw natural materials – this interior looks great in a spacious bath.
- Also, wall decoration with natural stone looks very unusual and original in a classic bath..
- On one of the walls near the stove, you can install a salt panel, which, like a salt lamp, when heated, will fill the room with useful microelements.
An overview of the layout of the bath with your own hands, see the next video.