If earlier the bathhouse was used exclusively to wash and warm up, today it is becoming a kind of way of spending leisure time. Comfortable recreation areas are set up in it, including in the fresh air. It is designed to be more spacious so that a large company has the opportunity to combine business with pleasure: improve their health and have a hearty conversation over a cup of tea..
In this regard, a large number of projects for these premises are being created..
Designing baths with your own hands is a rather complicated and even multi-level task. It is necessary to choose the right place on the territory of the suburban area, distribute the areas so that all the necessary zones are located, and, most importantly, comply with all safety conditions.
Bath projects differ depending on the desires of the owners..
If “after-bath” communication is important for them, then a large area is allocated for the rest room. If – the very process taking place in the steam room – then it and the sink become priority. The sinks themselves can vary in size and function: either they only house a shower and a couple of benches, or a real hot tub. The same can be said about steam rooms: in saunas they are small and “seated”, and in traditional typical baths – spacious and “recumbent”, equipped with a large number of shelves.
In addition, before starting construction work, it is important to decide on the construction material – the size of the finished bath may depend on it. For example, the standard length of beams and logs is 6 meters, so very often the size of the bath is planned to be 6 by 6 or 6 by 3 meters in order to reduce waste. Projects of baths made of bricks or foam blocks can be of various sizes, since foam blocks are easily cut with a hacksaw, and with the help of bricks, various masonry schemes are implemented.
Projects of baths with two floors, although more complicated and more expensive to implement, allow you to get a double area and free, possibly even living space. And also often the owners attach a terrace to the bathhouse..
The final projects will depend on the number of family members, and on the planned frequency of using the bath, and the layout of the site, and the financial capabilities of the owners..
There are three main types of baths:
- annexes to the main house;
- steam room inside the house.
The standard option is still considered a separate typical building, equipped with a water drain and ventilation. If the bath is planned as an extension or inside the house, then you will have to think over the location of communications in advance and strengthen compliance with security measures. Thus, you can save space on a small area and money for the construction of walls, foundations and roofs..
An obvious advantage of modern individual baths is also the fact that they can be built with your own hands, without the help of professionals. Even ready-made saunas are produced in disassembled form – sets of logs and beams that can be assembled at a chosen place in almost a day.
Where to place?
When planning a bath, it is necessary to pre-allocate a place for her at the summer cottage. Many factors will have to be taken into account, for example, the level of occurrence of groundwater, so this issue should be approached as seriously as possible..
On the basis of the soil and the surface of the site, they determine which foundation and construction of the bathhouse to choose.
Experts recommend placing saunas on the banks of reservoirs on a hillock:
- So the water during the spring flood will not flood the structures;
- If the correct slope is observed, the flowing wastewater will not be able to contaminate it..
The windows should be installed on the western side of the bath, as there is more sun here. In a traditional Russian bathhouse, there is only one window – in the dressing room, but in modern models, of course, there is much more incoming light. The front door is advised to be placed on the south side, where there will be less snow in the cold season..
The requirements for the gap between the bathhouse and the nearest buildings have also been established.. The bathhouse should be located at least 10 meters from the house and 3 meters from the border of the summer cottage, that is, the fence, in order to provide access to the building from all sides in the event of a fire. The distance to the well should be about 20 meters.
In general, the best option would be to place the bath in a separate recreation area, away from the main building. Nearby, you can place a pool or an artificial lake to plunge into the water after a hot steam room.
Subtleties of design
The project of a modern Russian bath is being developed in such a way that several people could be in it at the same time. On the layout of a small building, a vestibule that creates a thermal barrier, a dressing room (in which you can change) and the steam room itself are indicated, usually with an area of 6 to 9 square meters. A large bathhouse can be supplemented with a shower room with toilet, swimming pool, plunge pool, technical room and a spacious relaxation room. In villages, it happens that a special room is equipped where you can wash clothes, and where children and sick people wash..
There is no rest room in small saunas, but there is a vestibule, the area of which reaches 6 square meters.. It usually has a window, bench and coat hooks. In the vestibule you can undress and get dressed, relax and cool off after the steam room. It is recommended to leave the doors of the steam room itself and the dressing room in the direction of the vestibule and heat the entire bath from one stove.
The steam room is usually made square, keeping warm. At the entrance to it, they make a high threshold and put a small low door. The floor in the steam room is raised by 7-10 centimeters. In the corner zone, a wood-burning stove is usually installed. Opposite it are shelves for washing, as a rule, of different heights..
The most common is the option of such a bath, where a steam room, a washing or shower room, as well as a relaxation room are located under one roof..
Very often the steam room and the washroom are separated by a small partition. If the rest room is quite large, then it is possible to arrange a kitchen in it, so that there is always an opportunity to cook something simple and boil tea. It would be a good idea to complement the sauna with a summer outdoor terrace with a canopy, which will house a barbecue oven. The second floor of a two-story bath should be made a living area with full rooms.
If preference is given to a corner bath, then it should be borne in mind that in the classic version, two lounges are located around the steam room. Moreover, all rooms have a separate entrance. A corner bath is considered the most budgetary option in a situation of a shortage of extra square meters..
The bath project can be ordered from professionals or developed independently. It is worth starting with the development of technical specifications, on which to determine the area and location of all the desired zones.
The dressing room (especially in the absence of a vestibule) is responsible for performing many different functions, which should be taken into account in the project. It is necessary to think about places for sitting and changing clothes, places for storing clothes and shoes, a place for storing firewood. It is recommended to make the size of the dressing room twice as large as the steam room, and complete the room with a door insulated from the outside..
When planning a steam room, keep in mind that the minimum area for one vacationer should be 1 square meter, and a metal stove is installed at a distance of at least 1 meter from the wall and fenced off with a partition. An excellent solution would be to place the stove in such a way that it heats both the steam room and the relaxation room. In this case, the stove should be in the steam room, and the firebox in the second room. When deciding about the shelves in the steam room, it is necessary to take into account the preferred way to steam: sitting or lying down. The windows in the steam room are not needed if a ventilation duct is available. Otherwise, one double-glazed window is provided, facing west.
The place for washing depends on the desires and possibilities: either a shower room, or a font, or a pool, or just a bucket of water.
If you want to combine a bathhouse with a guest house, it is recommended to create a plan for a two-story building with a kitchen. On the first floor there is usually a steam room, a shower room, a rest room, a toilet, and on the second floor there are bedrooms, a small kitchen and another bathroom. Such a structure will save space on the site and create additional space..
The size of the two-story bath depends on the number of guests planned.
There are more projects of one-story baths of different sizes..
- The popular 5×4 meter project is suitable for a small plot of 6 acres. Such a bathhouse will quickly flood with a minimum amount of fuel, and as many as five people will have time to steam in it. This building is made of a log house.
- A small bathhouse 3 by 4 meters will be able to accommodate only 1-2 people. But it has a shower stall, so it can be used as a shower. The steam room itself occupies 4 square meters, so only 1 person can be in it at a time. Tambour is not provided for in such a project. The bathhouse is small, which provides for the combination of a changing room with a rest room. Most often, such structures are erected by hand..
- A 6×3 meter project usually has 4 rooms: an anteroom, a steam room, a washroom and a relaxation room. The bathhouse is medium-sized and often also has a veranda..
- The simplest bathhouse 4×4 m is a building consisting of one room, which is both a dressing room and a steam room. A standard project includes a relaxation room or a dressing room, a steam room and, if possible, a washing area. The most successful option also contains an attached terrace..
- The bath, which has an area of 3×5 m, presupposes the presence of a dressing room, a rest room, a sink and a steam room. A project with dimensions of 5 by 3 meters refers to the average size.
- In spacious saunas – from 30 to 40 square meters – the dressing room and the rest room are separate premises. A spacious veranda must be present.
- Projects of baths with attics should take into account the additional load on the foundation and minimize the area occupied by the stairs. It is imperative to include vapor barrier and thermal insulation of the floor between the first floor and the attic structure. Thus, it will be possible to prevent the development of fungus in the bath on the ceiling..
Choice of materials
The choice of materials for the bath is posed at the design stage. The placement on the site, and the type of foundation, and the appearance of the structure itself depend on this. The main materials for construction are wood, brick and foam concrete..
As for wood, log baths are considered optimal., rounded or chopped, ordinary timber and profiled timber. These projects are pretty cheap. Brick baths are quickly and easily placed. From the pros – they have better fire protection and a long service life, from the minuses – the structure needs to be warmed up longer.
Gas silicate baths are quite light in weight, which allows them to be installed even on problematic soils.
Blocks are easy to process, so some of their parts can be used as decorative elements.
Bath buildings made of three-layer SIP panels have excellent noise and heat insulation, relatively light weight and no temperature restrictions during construction. However, the material is far from environmentally friendly, it ignites easily and serves little to the owners..
Aerated concrete baths are no worse than wooden ones, and their cost is much lower. Aerated concrete retains heat well, is an environmentally friendly material and is easy to process.
Stone baths have low shrinkage and high fire resistance. However, the construction is quite expensive and technologically difficult..
Wood concrete baths are considered very environmentally friendly and fire resistant. If the finish is well done, then the structure will perfectly retain heat and not create condensation on the walls..
The type of foundation is selected depending on the material chosen for the construction of the bath itself, and the number of floors. It is also necessary to take into account what the maximum load of the walls is, and the natural features of the soil. Baths can be built on various foundations.
- Screw – which are typical for any soil. The screw foundation is installed within one day at any time of the year. Immediately after the completion of the work, you can begin to erect the structure itself. No soil treatment is required. The foundation on screw piles can serve for at least 150 years and withstand heavy loads. A screw pile is a metal pile that is screwed into the ground. It is similar to a screw and, once in the ground, seals it, thereby increasing the supporting capacity..
- Tape – the most labor-intensive. Usually strip foundations made of concrete or concrete blocks are used on difficult soils and in the construction of multi-storey baths. The drawing takes into account the dimensions of the building, and the slopes, and possible subsidence, and the depth of the water. Prior to construction, it is necessary to carry out preliminary earthworks – removal of the topsoil and leveling of the site. Ribbon device provides better thermal insulation.
- Columnar concrete – an option for those who want to save their money on the purchase of materials. The construction of a columnar foundation is very simple – columns are made from asbestos-cement pipes, which must be reinforced and poured with concrete. But also preliminary excavation works on loose, flooded soils are necessary. In addition, it is worth taking care of floor insulation..
Such foundations are chosen by the owners of small baths made of logs or timber..
- Driven piles – such structures made of reinforced concrete piles are used extremely rarely, but they are good for speeding up construction. Usually 6 screw piles with a depth of 2.5 meters are sufficient.
- Monolithic. Such a foundation looks like a continuous layer of cement with rubble under the entire area of the bath. It protects against excess moisture and sagging, is very durable and can withstand heavy loads. He is not afraid of either the movement of the soil, or freezing and further thawing, or heavy precipitation. In fact, a monolithic foundation is a solid reinforced concrete slab deepened into the ground. The walls of the room are built right on top of it.
The foundation for the brick kiln is being built separately., which cannot be less in depth than the basement of the bath, or be part of it. It is recommended to leave a small distance between both foundations, so that when they shrink, they can move relative to each other. In addition, it is important that the difference between the level of the floor itself and the foundation is about 70 millimeters..
Walls and roof
When choosing roofs, various materials are used: sheet steel, turf, tiles, slate sheets and others. The roof should primarily perform a protective function, and also fit well into the overall design of the suburban area. Therefore, when choosing a material, it is necessary to take into account the precipitation, the roof structure with an angle of inclination and the coverage of adjacent buildings. The roof is usually mounted single-pitch, gable or attic. The latter allows you to combine the bath with living quarters..
The slope angle should be between 10 and 60 degrees, depending on materials and terrain features. If the precipitation is heavy, then the angle of the freestanding gable room is 45 degrees. Shed roofs are usually chosen for annexes to the main building. The angle of such a roof is between 50 and 60 degrees. Flat roofs are installed in highly windy areas.
The most economical materials are considered to be wood chips, wood chips and sod.. Among modern materials, slate, roofing material, corrugated board, metal tiles and ondulin are distinguished. In Russia, the bath is usually covered with soft roofing materials. The most affordable material is roofing material, and durable ones are slate, which, unfortunately, increases the load on the frame, corrugated board and metal tiles with a high cost.
As for the walls, it is customary to make a bathhouse from wood – pine, linden, spruce, aspen or even birch. The blockhouse is cut from logs and forms 9-10 rows for a standard design.
However, non-professionals will not be able to cut down trees on their own, so it is better to purchase a ready-made log house assembled from a rounded log..
If the choice fell on the timber, then it is better to give preference to the processed – then it will be possible to save on interior decoration. The beam allows you to create buildings of various levels of complexity with your own hands – it is very easy to work with this material. The shrinkage of a bath made of this material will be only 5-10 centimeters. But it is also worth adding that building from a log house does not require special carpentry skills..
The cheapest solution is to assemble a structure from connected frame panels, inside which there is an insulation and a vapor barrier film. The technology is such that the frame is made up of beams sheathed with panel panels from the outside and from the inside. Insulating material is placed inside, for example, glass wool, and outside the shields are sometimes sheathed with clapboard or siding. Thus, the walls become a “thermos” and provide warmth inside the bathhouse. The construction of such a structure will not take much time or a lot of money – frame-panel elements are mounted without preliminary preparation and are relatively cheap.
The only drawback of wood, which is an environmentally friendly material and creates a unique aroma in the room, is that it quickly decays, especially in humid rooms. Therefore, do not forget about the special processing of the material..
The construction of a bath from lightweight concrete blocks is also considered inexpensive., which are now widely represented in the market. You can assemble a bathhouse from them in 2-3 days on your own, without turning to anyone’s help. However, it will be necessary to insulate the facade with siding, which will also provide protection from external influences. Concrete blocks can serve for a long time and calmly endure more than one change of interior decoration. The bad news is that such buildings do not hold much heat, unlike wooden ones..
Brick baths can last up to 150 years and look very attractive, showing the imagination of the designers. Brick has the highest fire resistance rates, and the material itself is considered safe for humans. But they take much longer to heat up and have poor vapor conductivity..
Baths made of foam concrete and aerated concrete require little firewood to heat the room and demonstrate high thermal insulation characteristics. If the walls are covered with foil, then the room will quickly heat up and maintain a high temperature for a long time. And also when using these blocks, you can save on finishing work, since the material has a smooth surface.
One of the main advantages of foam concrete is the fact that it does not burn..
The interior design of the room fulfills an aesthetic function and also protects the surfaces of walls, floors and ceilings.
Finishing the walls and floor inside the bath, again, can be carried out using various materials.. They must be resistant to moisture and steam, environmentally friendly, able to serve for many years and, of course, aesthetic..
Most often, preference is given to wood – linden or aspen. Resin-producing conifers are not recommended. All wooden parts are treated with a special solution to increase the service life.
One of the popular materials with an attractive design is clapboard. It is made from larch or cedar and is very safe for rooms with high humidity. It can also be used for external cladding. The lining of wood has a pleasant texture and is combined with other materials. But it is quite difficult to install, it is not easy to maintain, and the material does not have high fire resistance. Unfortunately, the cost of the lining is also very high..
A block house is also used – a kind of lining that looks like logs. Only hardwoods such as linden are suitable for interior cladding. Imitation of a bar is also a common solution..
Quite often, the washroom and other areas are decorated with beautiful tiles., which simplifies the maintenance of the room. In the washroom, due to the constant presence of water, the atmosphere is detrimental to the wood, but does not cause any harm to the ceramics. In addition, the tile makes it possible to apply original design solutions. Do not forget that the floor must be covered with non-slip tiles. Ceramic tiles are durable, sustainable and environmentally friendly.
For changing rooms, lounges and shower rooms, PVC panels are sometimes chosen, which have an affordable price, a variety of colors and easy installation. But such material is very short-lived and unstable to high temperatures..
Interior finishing always starts with the floors. It is poured with a concrete screed, on which logs, a rough coating are subsequently laid, and only after that the finishing floors are laid. In this case, it is immediately necessary to think over the system for removing water from the room. Tiles or cutting boards are most often used as flooring, although original modern solutions are also present..
The flooring can also be made of cork, boardwalk or fiber mat.
This is followed by wall decoration, and the ceiling – last.. In the bath, mainly in the steam room, the ceiling is exposed to hot steam and high humidity, which indicates the need for additional protection. For this purpose, the ceilings are covered with a building membrane or aluminum foil. All joints are glued with aluminum tape. The ceiling above the oven is additionally protected by a steel sheet. The highest quality materials should be used upstairs.
It should be added that at the stage of interior finishing it is time to think about the method of heating the building. Traditionally, the Russian bath is heated with wood, but sometimes preference is given to gas, electricity, coal or fuel oil..
Firewood is good for its low price and widespread availability. It should be added that they create a unique atmosphere and smell in the steam room. Their downside is that a person who is engaged in the firebox must always be present in the bath. In addition, you have to think about a room or flooring for storing firewood. Gas heating is capable of operating autonomously for an unlimited time, which means that there is no need for human control. It does not emit harmful emissions and is also cheap..
Modern heating methods include the “warm floor” system. They are electric and water-based, with the second option being more economical and more labor-intensive. First of all, a waterproofing material is laid, then a layer of mortar and a layer of thermal insulation. A cable or pipes for circulating a hot coolant is mounted on top, and everything is again covered with a screed.
There are no special requirements for the choice of materials for decorating the rest room, here the aesthetic appearance is more important. For example, in chalet-style saunas, the floor is assembled from solid boards that are not painted or varnished. The walls are lined with plaster or wood, large protruding ceiling beams are always present. The furniture is set old, simple, with untreated surfaces. A fireplace is required. Speaking of furniture, usually loungers and shelves, benches and benches, cabinets and hangers, stools, chairs and tables are purchased or made for a bath. All interior elements must be safe, durable and multifunctional. Standard steam room shelves are 185 centimeters long, 65 centimeters wide and 80 centimeters high. Shelves can have several tiers, be folding or stationary. In addition, the steam room accommodates foot and head supports.
The latter help to comfortably sit on the shelf while lying down, reducing pressure on the spine.
The washing section contains shelves, stools and hangers for storing bath accessories. Practical and comfortable furniture for a restroom in a standard form is a set of a table, benches, chairs and stools. A bench or a couch, a wardrobe and a hanger are placed in the vestibule.
Examples of finished buildings
Lovers of the East, who have money, can arrange a steam room, and the bath itself in a Turkish style. A traditional oriental bath, called a hammam, is heated by a stone bed in the center of the room. Often a “waterfall” is formed on the wall, which acts as a washing room – here you can rinse yourself after a long stay in a hot room. The air in the hammam has a comfortable temperature, which makes it possible to carry out a variety of spa treatments and massages. Of the decor elements, such a bath will require neon lighting, special benches, tiles with oriental ornaments and mosaics. In the rest room, you can equip a full-fledged hookah, hang bright curtains, set a low table on curved legs and scatter multi-colored pillows.
Those who are close to Japanese culture will love the idea of decorating a bathhouse in the same style. Extensive areas are not required, so you can place it inside the house or in a small annex. According to Japanese custom, the washroom is complemented by a wooden font divided into two parts. One has a seating bench and the other a heating element. Another way to decorate a bathhouse in Japanese style is to install ofuro – a rectangular container of water heated with cedar or lime sawdust. Bamboo screens, a large fan on the wall and natural shades will complete the creation of a holistic interior..
Of course, in matters of bath design, the majority will vote for the traditional Russian premises. The rest room or dressing room is furnished with carved wooden furniture, and the firebox of the fireplace stove is also displayed here. Small windows are decorated with trims and floral curtains. The steam room can be combined with the washing room in one space and a wooden bucket with cold water can be hung from the ceiling, which will replace dipping into an ice hole.
The walls are finished with unedged boards.
A stone stove lined with tiles must be installed. Light wood species and metal elements, household items and accessories are selected – brooms, wooden tubs, chests and samovars.
The design of the Scandinavian chalet-style bath is reminiscent of a traditional Russian bath, but has its own “chips”. The building has a high base, finished with natural or artificial stone, which protects against flooding and freezing. The building is either one-story or with an attic. Interior decoration is carried out with wood and glass, and the walls themselves are erected from massive beams and logs. The roof is gable with low overhang, often asymmetrical. The bathhouse is heated by a fireplace stove, and furnishings are bought in the Scandinavian style: natural wood, massive structures.
And there are also high-tech saunas, Finnish saunas and even neo-Gothic.
Choosing a country or rustic style, the owner gets a bright, practical and cozy space. You can choose the country music of any country – France, Germany, USA, England, Italy or another. Each one requires certain colors, types of textiles and decorative elements. However, all of them are united by the choice of light polished wood furniture, decorated with carvings or engravings, the presence of details from wood and ceramics, wooden decor of walls, ceilings and floors, as well as linen and cotton textiles..
The modern classic style in the bath building does not lose its popularity. It is characterized by the presence of columns, arches, statues, stucco elements and several levels of the ceiling. Baths designed in this way are usually part of the main building and a continuation of the overall interior, with a slight effect of snobbery and security. If there is a desire to place such a bathhouse in a separate building, then it is recommended to build it from cinder blocks, concrete and brick. Doorways in the shape of an arch, furniture with straight, laconic forms, matte tiles on the floor – and the interior is ready.
The Art Nouveau space is characterized by a combination of modern technology, unusual materials and a traditional sauna. There are no specific requirements, everything is left to the will of the designer’s imagination. Modern is characterized by bright accents, abstract designs, color combinations and floral patterns. Colorful mosaics and lighting are essential attributes of an Art Nouveau washroom.
Sheathing the bath outside, you can give preference to absolutely any color.
A tree covered with an antiseptic of the desired color, as well as a combination of wood, tile and stone, will look harmonious. It is also possible to simply cover the bath with a layer of the chosen paint. The windows are decorated with carved platbands, painted in bright colors, echoing the painting of the roof. A brick bathhouse is partially sheathed with siding or boards. In general, you can combine and combine different shades, materials and textures.
Do not forget about decorating the bathhouse porch with plants, sculptures and other decorative elements, as well as the landscape around. A bench next to the building, neat flower beds and a barbecue area should become a single ensemble with a bath.
The original choice will be a sauna on wheels and a sauna in the form of a wooden barrel. A round barrel bath can serve as a Finnish bath, a Russian steam bath or a Japanese ofuro. The Russian bath consists of a steam room and a washing room and is installed at a slight slope. The grid with the stove goes towards the steam room, and the heating tank and the firebox itself are located in the washing room. A dry Finnish bath is located in one space, and a container with water awaits at the exit of the bathers. The ofuro bathhouse has no roof. It is installed on a wooden platform, and inside they place wooden seats and a stove closed by a partition, so as not to get burned.
A bath on wheels, as a rule, is rented by large groups of friends or relatives getting out into nature. Such a bath can be connected to a passenger car using a single-axle trailer, a two-axle trailer, or it can be based on a heavy truck. Outside, such a bath is usually decorated with wooden panels and decorated with kerosene lanterns, carved platbands and neat steps. From the inside, the steam room is sheathed with foil, and then deciduous clapboard. All parts are carefully secured so as not to move during the trip. Shelves are made either foldable or retractable to save space. In general, a bath on wheels does not differ much from a stationary one. Its main advantages are that there is no need to equip the foundation, obtain permits for repair work, and you can place the building completely anywhere.
For the layout of the bath, see the next video..