Greenhouse: varieties and design device

A modern suburban or suburban area allows you to grow a full harvest of vegetables. But in order for plants to feel great in any climate, they need a proper, cozy and comfortable home. In this capacity, special devices are usually used to provide young sprouts with the necessary protection..

Peculiarities

When creating your own greenhouse economy, it is important to pay attention to which structures are used as auxiliary means for growing vegetable crops. Greenhouses gained their popularity in the second half of the 20th century and quickly became an indispensable tool in the work of gardeners. A more thorough study of the design features helps to understand what it is. In fact, a greenhouse is called a lightweight portable solution installed outdoors and protecting plants from external factors. Initially, homemade structures were made from a metal rod and plastic wrap. Frame mini-greenhouses with glazing were also practiced, but their use turned out to be too inconvenient for giving and personal subsidiary plots..

In addition, all greenhouses are usually subdivided into options with solar heating and heated from below with manure introduced to a depth of more than 15 cm, which releases heat..

If you compare greenhouses and greenhouses with each other, the differences will be obvious..

  1. Low altitude. For a greenhouse, it reaches 1.2 m. Greenhouses have a minimum height of 2 meters and can easily accommodate a person at full height.
  2. Frameless design. Variants of products on arcs are completely fixed in the ground without effort, simply by immersing their ends into the ground.
  3. Short term operation. The breakdown is carried out mainly for the period of spring coolness, when the night temperature drops to almost zero..

    But progress does not stand still. Today, it is easy to find hybrids of greenhouses and greenhouses on the beds, used almost year-round. Their main purpose is to grow seedlings in special containers.. In this case, the interior space may have:

    • equipped rows of shelves on which boxes are installed, as a rule, two tiers – for germinating seeds and adjusting already hatched plants to the desired growth;
    • additional arched-arc structures installed on top of the shelves for securing the second layer of the film;
    • additional lighting fixtures fixed under the ceiling structures;
    • heating circuits located in the space between the shelves and the ground, providing the necessary thermoregulation.

    Views

    All existing and popular types of greenhouses can be divided into the following categories.

    • Mini – are compact in size and are suitable both for growing seedlings and for year-round cultivation on the balcony of various types of garden crops. In addition, they are actively used in the rooting of capricious plants in growing – bush roses, currant or raspberry cuttings. The micro-greenhouse on the windowsill allows you to ensure the optimal ratio of the occupied area and productivity when growing fresh herbs or dwarf varieties of vegetables.

    • Garden – used for growing a variety of fruit crops, are established during the initial planting of cuttings before their rooting.

    • Winter – tunnel or frame version with a pre-erected foundation. Stationary products can be used for growing fruits and vegetables in large quantities. Year-round use is recommended exclusively in the framework of moderate continental climatic conditions. Also, in these designs, a variant of the “breadbox” frame is widespread..

    • Made – mobile structures for short-term seasonal operation. The best solution for home use. They allow you to easily move products around the site, send them for winter storage. This type also includes ready-made film structures, which are distinguished by convenience and high speed of installation. Such a greenhouse goes on sale on PVC or a metal frame, it can have different characteristics..

    • Round – such options are especially in demand for growing thermophilic plants. Outwardly, the structure may look like an Eskimo igloo. In addition, in self-production, an umbrella design is often used, in which the dome has the shape of a hemisphere, consisting of separate “petals”.

    • Folding – a simple design can have a fairly high frame. The selected dimensions can be up to 2 m vertically. The frame in such products is aluminum, lightweight and functional. In addition, accordion products on a plastic frame are quite widely used. When dismantled, this option can be easily folded like an accordion, providing opportunities for successful and long-term operation. On average, this product is enough for 4 seasons..

    • Sliding a greenhouse with an opening roof is an excellent solution for permanent operation. This design option is usually made on the basis of a metal frame. Has a scratch-resistant polycarbonate coating.

    • “House” – one of the simplest execution options. Has a gable structure. The ridge serves as a retainer, the coating can be polyethylene or polycarbonate. The rectangular frame base makes this mentoring solution really simple and easy to use. Among its disadvantages is poor resistance to wind or snow loads. It topples easily and can only be considered as a temporary structure..

    Models

    The range of greenhouses for seasonal or permanent use is quite diverse. Among the presented options for finished products from various manufacturers, various options for plants at different stages of growth can be distinguished. It is worth noting that reviews of industrial greenhouses today look quite positive. Summer residents highlight the convenience of deploying and storing ready-made solutions. In addition, the undoubted advantage of purchased equipment for growing vegetables and berry crops is its ease of use. The ready-made kit already contains everything you need for the successful cultivation of the most capricious plants, makes it possible to easily select the best solutions for installation in the country or in the garden. Let’s consider the most popular ready-made solutions in more detail.

    “A bountiful harvest”

    An innovative solution for growing plants outdoors. Designed for early planting of horticultural and horticultural crops. This model of a greenhouse is able to withstand operation when atmospheric temperatures drop to -5 degrees. In addition, in this case, the fruits will not be afraid of wind loads and attacks of harmful insects. The use of agrofibre instead of film greatly facilitates the ventilation process. Polyethylene arcs are not afraid of corrosion, they are light enough, but strong at the same time. The covering material is embedded in the arches. When installed, the folded arched structure unfolds and is fixed in the ground using pointed elements at the ends of the arches.

    Greenhouses “Rich Harvest” are distinguished by a design of increased strength. The products are equipped with everything necessary for operation in harsh weather conditions. Another distinctive feature is the use of exclusively environmentally friendly materials. Modern agrofibre provides an optimal microclimate for growing fruit and vegetable crops. Air circulates well through a special canvas, but insects do not enter. The material acts as a natural filter capable of providing a high level of UV protection.

    “Snail”

    A compact portable solution – the “Snail” greenhouse, is invariably popular with gardeners and gardeners. It has no restrictions on the installation method. You can use the structure on a foundation or put it directly into the ground. The small height of 75-85 cm is compensated for here by the convenience of regulating the microclimate. The sliding sash folds like a snail’s shell. A strong metal frame makes the whole greenhouse really stable. The covering material is strong and durable polycarbonate. The model is mobile, suitable for movement throughout the season.

    The presented design option is characterized by maximum versatility. The cost of a ready-made solution, in terms of long-term use, looks quite attractive. The materials used make the equipment for growing seedlings an excellent option for year-round operation. The greenhouse opens on both sides. It can be used to grow most crops. It is worth considering only the limitation in height – no more than 85 cm for one plant. The budget price of the structure looks really attractive against this background..

    “Zucchini”

    The “Zucchini” greenhouse, which is popular today, is an excellent option for year-round use. Its design includes only proven and most relevant technological solutions. The metal frame made of a metal profile with a square section of 25×25 mm provides high strength and a sufficient level of rigidity to withstand wind, snow and precipitation. Cellular polycarbonate acts as a covering material. The metal parts of the frame structure are painted. The greenhouse includes lifting walls with special stops for fixing. Tall enough, it creates all the conditions for the successful cultivation of climbing and climbing plants, tall tomatoes.

    Despite the rather solid construction, this type of greenhouse is difficult to recommend for winter operation in regions with cold climates. The arched design reduces the amount of light penetrating into the interior, at subzero temperatures, combined with a short daylight hours, this can have a serious negative effect on growing thermophilic crops.

    Products of the company “Volia”

    The Volya company, which produces modern greenhouses for film, is the manufacturer of one of the most popular options on the market – the Ogurchik model. The long arched greenhouse is made in a five-meter design with a width of 1 m and a height of 1.1 m. The frame structure is made of a durable and practical profile with a galvanized coating. The budget solution is inexpensive, but it allows you to reliably protect plants from cold weather and bad weather. A greenhouse can become a good alternative to a greenhouse where there is no possibility for the installation of a frame structure. The film is securely fixed and does not slip. Free slats make it easier to open the spans when airing or watering, harvesting. The finished greenhouse is delivered in a compact package.

    “Agronomist” 6 sections

    Model “Agronom” 6 sections is a modern greenhouse with clips, capable of providing an optimal ratio of cost, quality and durability of the structure. The frame of the product is made of safe PVC that does not emit harmful substances into the atmosphere. In addition, there are modern clamps made of polymer materials that can reliably fix the raised covering material on the surface of the arcs. However, various options for the most common clothespins can do this task just as well. Instead of a film, it is proposed to use an agrotextile coating. The finished structure maintains an optimal microclimate inside, does not allow plants to freeze or rot from an excess of moisture.

    The convenience of the greenhouse in use provides an opportunity for easy displacement of agrotextile by sections when weeding or watering. The fabric is designed with a margin, allows you to tightly press the edge to the ground. In addition, the finished product is capable of providing the highest level of protection against the harmful effects of ultraviolet rays. The product is installed directly into the ground, does not require the installation of a frame, creates the best conditions for obtaining high yields (the manufacturer promises an increase of up to 50% in comparison with open ground).

    “Dayas”

    The original “Dayas” greenhouse is presented in the manufacturer’s product line in a fairly wide range. There are compact solutions for providing a comfortable microclimate for strawberries or for germinating seeds, as well as classic and oversized models for garden crops with long shoots. A wide range of innovative solutions are used in the design of the product. In the frame part, an HDPE arc is used. Base material – special non-woven polypropylene material “Reifenhauser”, developed to order.

    Among the obvious advantages of greenhouses produced under this brand is the variety of design options. In addition, the products are adapted for use in a wide variety of operating conditions. You can choose it for a home or a summer residence, order for use on a personal plot. The high strength of the cover avoids damage in strong winds. Non-woven fabric is safe to use in rain, easy to dry, easy to store.

    “Tulip”

    The design of the Tulip greenhouse is recognized as one of the most successful among all options used today in Russia. The opening roof here provides excellent access to the plants’ sunlight. In addition, the side panel also slides to allow for natural pollination. When installed on a foundation, it can be used as a stationary solution for year-round use. The design is made on the principle of a bread bin, when opening, the sashes go one after the other, without creating visible inconveniences during operation.

    The compact size of the greenhouse makes it the best choice for use in growing flowers for sale, cultivating fresh greenery. Cellular polycarbonate as a shelter creates conditions for the introduction of heating systems inside with minimal heat loss. The kit comes in a package. Assembly takes a minimum of time, does not require special knowledge or skills.

    “Harmonic”

    “Accordion” is a modern greenhouse that has all the advantages of an easy and effective temporary shelter. It is compact, based on plastic arches, which are flexible and durable, easily mounted on the garden bed due to the direct installation of polymer arches into a polypropylene base. Covering material – agrotextile, provides good light transmission. The rigid fastening of the fabric is located at the top, on the sides it hangs freely and allows for optimal ventilation, makes it convenient when weeding the garden. The dismantled structure is assembled like an accordion and does not take up much space during storage. The included polypropylene frame has strength, reliability and functionality, withstands significant mechanical stress.

    When installing, arcs made of polymer materials are mounted directly into the frame base. No screw connections are needed – just connect the elements together. The plastic base has high corrosion resistance and is not afraid of contact with chemically aggressive substances. The affordable cost of this model allows it to be attractive for summer residents and gardeners who have their own subsidiary plots..

    “Tunnel”

    The type of greenhouse known as the “Tunnel” is widely used by manufacturers of various named designs. It is quite simple, functional and at the same time provides opportunities for the rapid deployment of protective structures on the soil surface. Structures of this type are characterized by a linear, parallel arrangement of arcs or other supports in relation to each other. A connecting element must be installed between the individual blocks. Most often it is a stationary rigid frame on which the greenhouse is mounted along the entire length.

    The popularity of tunnel structures is due to their characteristics. They are really simple and practical to install, do not require special installation skills, and are suitable for ridges of different lengths and widths. It should be added that it is precisely tunnel products that can be called the direct heirs of Soviet traditions in the greenhouse industry. It is they who are bought, if it is not planned to leave a shelter in the garden for the winter..

    Reviews of all popular and demanded greenhouse models look quite attractive. When selecting a specific technological solution, it is worth considering the availability of free space and a number of other important and significant points. So, the models under the film, although they have an affordable cost, are not very practical in the long run. But their analogues with covering materials based on agrotextile fully justify their purchase and are ready for use for several seasons..

    Materials (edit)

    The correct choice of materials for the manufacture of greenhouses is equally important. Each option has its own advantages and disadvantages.. Let’s consider them in more detail.

    • Film. Polyethylene structures are rightfully considered the most attractive in terms of affordability. Annual replacement of the outer coating is inexpensive for summer residents, while providing excellent conditions for growing seedlings or stunted crops. Classic film transmits light well, but does not regulate the intensity of UV radiation. Reinforced products are more durable and can last more than two seasons. Another disadvantage of the film coating is its impermeability. The lack of conditions for air circulation creates the very “greenhouse effect” that leads to the accumulation of condensate inside the greenhouse.

    • Covering material or spunbond. Non-woven polymer fabrics provide an opportunity for the formation of an impeccable microclimate in the greenhouse. With their help, you can cover the beds of any area, provide a high level of light transmission and natural ventilation of the space. Watering in this case can also be carried out on top of the material. It is worth paying attention to the fact that in this case you do not have to worry about protecting plants from the effects of pests or birds (during the harvest period). Unlike film, this solution provides opportunities for continuous operation over several seasons..

    • Polycarbonate – an original solution that allows you to turn a temporary structure into an almost stationary solution. The sheet material is distinguished by excellent flexibility, light transmission, and excellent thermal insulation properties. In addition, polycarbonate greenhouses are lightweight and easy to install. In addition, it is worth considering that in the presence of additional heating, such a greenhouse can be operated year-round, without additional efforts and costs, providing an opportunity for successful vegetable growing or early preparation of seedlings for transfer to open ground..

    • Glass. An expensive greenhouse solution is also fragile and impractical. Modern summer residents replace silicate glass products with plexiglass. Above 4 mm thick, excellent thermal insulation is provided. High light transmission makes glass greenhouses a good enough and convenient solution for long-term use in a balcony or home garden. Among the obvious disadvantages of such structures are their massiveness and excessive fragility..

    • Agrofiber – a compromise innovative covering for greenhouses. They are available in black and white and provide an opportunity to successfully achieve a comfortable microclimate inside the shelter. An increase in the yield of vegetable and fruit crops when using agrofibre and a significant increase in seed germination have been proved. In addition, it is important to pay great attention to the fact that not the cheapest coating can be used for 6 seasons. Accordingly, in the long term, it turns out to be more profitable..

    Of no less importance is the choice of the basis for the greenhouse. Today they are made from fiberglass reinforcement, shaped pipes. Among the homemade options, you can find a wooden greenhouse – the most budgetary option, most often used in combination with film. Industrial production of products usually involves the use of painted or galvanized steel profiles that can last up to 15 years without replacement. The lightest and most compact models are equipped with plastic or PVC arcs and frame structures for their fastening.

    Purpose and location

    When choosing a greenhouse for growing seedlings or cultivating thermophilic plants in cold climates, it is worth remembering the individual characteristics of each such design. So, a shelter for peppers will differ significantly from a house for flowers or melons. For beds with less capricious inhabitants, for example, at the stage of seedling formation and during its hardening, unheated cold greenhouses are used. In them, the average temperature is maintained at + 4-7 degrees, which makes it easy to create conditions for growing beets, peas and many other crops in a cold climate..

    Semi-cold greenhouses at any time of the year allow the temperature inside to not drop below 10-13 degrees Celsius. The installation of infrared heating devices allows for winter heating of such structures and creates conditions for the year-round cultivation of most garden and vegetable garden crops. Similar designs are suitable for growing flowers, vegetables, berries..

    Warm greenhouses – mini-versions of the greenhouse, provide the best opportunities for the cultivation of rare and exotic heat-loving plants. Orchids and other flower options can be grown here even on the balcony if a stand-alone design is chosen..

    When determining the most suitable place for a greenhouse, you should pay attention to the following factors.

    1. Features of the landscape. If you install a greenhouse in a low area, the heat and humidity will create climatic conditions that are not very suitable for most plants in the middle lane. In addition, when erecting on a foundation, the groundwater level must be taken into account. Slab and pile structures will help compensate for excessive soil moisture.
    2. Soil type. Greenhouses are best installed on sandy or sandy loam soils. If the soil is clayey, you should first excavate and prepare the land. Clay and sand will help to drain the excessively dense fraction, a fertile layer is poured on top.
    3. Plot slope. The larger it is, the higher the likelihood that the installation will have to be carried out on a special base that compensates for all possible elevation differences. If you do not provide for the need to build a foundation, the heating of the soil may turn out to be uneven..
    4. Orientation to the cardinal points. It is recommended to lay greenhouse structures strictly from north to south or from east to west. In this case, it will be possible to ensure the maximum capture of the sun’s rays. Greenhouses located meridian are an excellent solution for seasonal growing of vegetables. But their north-south orientation will not help warm the plants during colder seasons. Here it is already necessary to apply a latitudinal arrangement so that the greenhouses run from east to west..
    5. Climatic features of the growing region. In open spaces in northern latitudes, it is better to provide additional wind protection, install shields or other structures. In warmer climates, planting a hedge will perfectly cope with the role of a protective barrier..
    6. Rules for the location of objects, taking into account the requirements of safety standards. It is not recommended to locate greenhouses directly next to the house, household or other buildings due to possible shading or snow from the roof in winter. In the absence of opportunities for remote placement, protective structures are placed on the south side of residential buildings and other structures..
    7. Proximity of communication lines. For summer and seasonal buildings, this factor is not serious. But if we are talking about options for greenhouses with year-round heating, solving the problem of water supply and lighting is much more radical. It is recommended to lay linear communications even during the construction of the foundation..

    If all the significant points are taken into account, you do not have to worry about the fact that the result of the construction of a greenhouse structure will really meet all the expectations. The yield of the planted plants largely depends on the choice of location. In addition, the serviceability of the finished solution will be really high..

    Good examples

    If we are talking about a spacious area dedicated to seasonal cultivation of garden plants, you can choose a large and long version with a film coating or polycarbonate top. In a long (5-8 m) shelter, you can grow up to 15-25 bushes of tomatoes or peppers, collect a rich harvest of cucumbers. A compact arched greenhouse can be easily constructed and installed on any area of ​​the site. It is ideal for installation in the country in the season of germination and hardening of seedlings, will help to realize dreams of a variety of vegetables grown.

    Open-top greenhouse models are easy to maintain and provide excellent results when growing thermophilic crops. On the balcony, a small display case under glass or polycarbonate construction will be more appropriate. Among the glazed structures, the “house” version with the possibility of easy regulation of the ventilation level is also very popular..

        A pre-prepared and properly selected greenhouse is an essential component of successful vegetable cultivation. Modern industry offers the widest possible selection of ready-made solutions for different categories of buyers. Most of them do not require complex assembly, have an attractive appearance, and protect seedlings well from the cold. Of course, greenhouses cannot be viewed as a full-fledged replacement for a greenhouse. But if the site does not allow you to turn around properly, such a compromise solution will definitely come in handy..

        How to make a greenhouse or garden bed "for the lazy" do it yourself, see the video below.

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