In the process of building a bath, everyone will certainly be faced with the issue of its insulation. After all, if the thermal insulation is carried out poorly, this can not only interfere with the full-fledged adoption of bath procedures, but also harm human health. Heat can escape through the walls, ceiling and floor, so you need to approach their insulation very seriously..
The main feature of any insulation is its ability to withstand severe temperature changes and high humidity without compromising the properties of the material. Therefore, it is important to choose the right thermal insulation for the room. The modern market offers a wide range of heaters, different in their qualities and price range..
First of all, environmental friendliness and safety of the materials used are important, their ability not to emit harmful substances when heated. There are two classes of insulation used in the construction of such premises. One of them includes materials that reflect the infrared spectrum of radiation, the other is able to maintain the temperature inside a bath or sauna, having a low thermal conductivity.
Types of materials
The choice of heaters for a brick, wooden or block bath is quite wide, it includes both proven materials, such as fiberglass, mineral wool, mezhventsovy jute, isover, and new ones, for example, foil penotherm. The use of any of them depends on the individual wishes of the customer. For example, when using foil-clad thermal insulation material, there is no need to additionally make a vapor barrier. However, when choosing, it is recommended to take into account some points..
At first, the insulation must be marked with exact values about the thickness and thermal conductivity. The absence of this information suggests that the material may not meet quality standards. Secondly, it is worth choosing a heater with the lowest possible thermal conductivity coefficient, without taking into account its density – this guarantees less heat transmission.
And finally, it is worth paying attention to the fact that the materials should be as non-flammable, safe and non-toxic as possible, with high resistance to extreme temperature changes. The recommended fire safety class of such materials is G0 and G1.
Thermal insulation of baths with natural materials became widespread many decades ago. For these purposes, felt, moss, tow was used. Currently, this method has also found its application, but jute fibers are more often used due to the absence of chemical impurities. These materials do not interfere with air exchange and retain heat perfectly if, during operation, they are hammered into the joints properly, without leaving gaps. Inter-wedding jute is environmentally friendly, it is absolutely safe during operation.
Among the minuses, one can note the love of insects and birds for such materials, which can create certain inconveniences. In addition, they cannot be called moisture resistant. This is also dangerous because in the process of decay of thermal insulation, adjacent building materials can also be damaged. Working with natural insulation takes quite a long time. They are also fire hazardous, especially when dry..
Materials can be combined, produced in rolls and impregnated with special additives. Such heaters are much more durable than clean ones.
Polyfoam can be used to insulate a wide variety of rooms, baths are no exception. It is very lightweight due to its cellular structure, therefore it is an excellent option when working with frame baths. Also, the foam has excellent soundproofing and windproof properties..
The thermal conductivity of polymers is low, while they are easy to handle and install, there is no need to seek help from professional builders. In addition, the slabs are of a reasonable price. Much depends on the manufacturer. Verified companies are fully responsible for the environmental friendliness and safety of their products, while low-quality products can emit harmful substances when heated.
However, with a large number of advantages, there are also disadvantages. First of all, it is the fragility of materials that can be accidentally broken even during installation. They have excellent flammability, despite the processing carried out. Also, the plates need to be mounted only on the frame, and they are used exclusively for external insulation..
When the plates are folded together, joints are formed, which must be additionally processed so that heat does not escape through them. It is necessary to additionally organize a vapor barrier, since the foam does not have moisture-absorbing properties, therefore, condensation may appear between it and the wall, which can lead to damage to the structure. And, finally, sometimes mouse minks can appear in such a heater..
Has another name – penoplex. Outwardly, this material resembles foam, but has different properties with it. First of all, it has a denser structure. Extruded polystyrene foam is relatively resistant to temperature and moisture, has a low weight and can be used when working with walls, as well as with floors and ceilings. Finally, it is not spoiled by rodents and insects..
Among the disadvantages are the complexity of the installation, intolerance to ultraviolet radiation and complex hydrocarbons, good flammability, as well as the need for additional vapor barrier. As in the previous case, penoplex is intended for outdoor use only.
Allocate stone and slag mineral wool. In the first case, the basis is made up of materials such as basalt, limestone and the like, in the second – industrial waste, mainly metal. When insulating baths, it is possible to use exclusively basalt insulation.
Plates are rigid and keep their shape well, this is an indisputable advantage. They do not burn, tolerate temperatures up to 1000 degrees, while not losing their properties. Resistant to mold and mildew, easy to install and operate, and the seams between the slabs fit tightly to each other and require almost no separate thermal insulation.
As for the disadvantages, the plates are mounted only on the frame, in addition, they are prone to subsidence. During installation, it is necessary to ensure the tightness of the material, otherwise it will lose its qualities.
Currently, mineral wool is used by professional builders less and less, as they prefer to use more modern insulation.
This liquid insulation has appeared on the market quite recently. The composition is sprayed and, on contact with air, turns into a foam from bubbles. After hardening, the foam expands very strongly. It is very elastic and durable, does not lend itself well to deformation, has good sound insulation.
The material is environmentally friendly and completely non-toxic, withstands significant temperature fluctuations from -90 to +100 degrees. It is fireproof, in addition, due to the fact that it creates a protective coating on wooden elements, it is able to keep them from the effects of insects. An indisputable advantage is the ease of application to any surface.
The main disadvantage is the need to use a nebulizer. This device is not included, so you need to purchase it separately.
The use of expanded clay gravel for insulation is widespread due to the low price and versatility of the material. It is also used as a filler for lightweight concrete..
The construction of a bath from expanded clay concrete blocks is gaining popularity. It is used in all weather conditions. Thermal insulation of the premises is carried out together with the finishing. There is a specificity when carrying out such work. For the insulation of such buildings, in most cases, mineral wool, foam plastic and thermal fiber are used..
When laying any type of insulation, it is recommended to use a vapor barrier film. In the foil, it is present initially. It is reflective and prevents heat from escaping through cracks and holes.
Foil insulation can be made of mineral material, polystyrene foam, basalt and polyethylene foam. A very thin aluminum foil is applied over the base. It is used for all bath rooms, the main condition is laying with the shiny side inward.
Criterias of choice
The choice of insulation depends on the requirements of the buyer, which may include both quality and reliability, and the price of the purchased material. In any case, it is recommended to pay attention to individual points so that the result of the work carried out does not disappoint the consumer..
Be sure to take into account the moisture-resistant properties of the insulation. In their absence, the material will quickly get wet, which will lead to decay processes, and the thermal insulation will have to be completely changed after a couple of years. Condensation build-up can also play a devastating role..
Certain products may be made of unsafe materials and may release toxic substances when heated. The environmental friendliness of the insulation is very important, since in case of extreme temperature changes, only high-quality materials will be able to retain their properties and not harm users.
We must not forget that the bathhouse is a place of increased fire hazard.. Therefore, the materials used in construction and insulation should not be flammable and flammable.. In addition, they must be resistant to the spread of harmful microorganisms..
It is worth noting that the better the heat-insulating properties of the product, the less its volume will be needed in the end, which will certainly contribute to savings. It is also necessary to ensure maximum tightness. And with the ability of the material to keep its shape for a long time, you can abandon the frame equipment.
It must be remembered that materials of various characteristics and in a wide price range are presented on the market. The ideal option would be to choose a high-quality insulation, endowed with the necessary properties, and in a moderate price range..
How to insulate?
The dried concrete must be covered with waterproofing and re-filled with cement with the addition of vermiculite. A reinforcing mesh is laid, which is poured from above with concrete, to which fine gravel is added. It is very important to make the floor slope where the water drain is located. After that, the finished floor is laid on the pre-installed posts..
Next comes the turn of the walls. Work from the inside is carried out as follows. First of all, using a bar or slats made of wood, it is necessary to fix the crate with a small gap between the slats. In this case, there will be no room for bridges in which cold air can accumulate. Basalt fiber or mineral wool can be used as insulation.
It is necessary to start the insulation of the bath correctly from the basement and the floor. It can be of two types – flowing and continuous. For each of the types, its own method of insulation is used. When working with a solid floor, experts recommend paying attention to mineral wool. The rough floor is closed with it, and waterproofing is applied on top. After that, you can fill.
As for the leaking floor, the scheme of work is completely different. Initially, you will need a pit about 50 centimeters deep. After that, 5 centimeters of sand is poured, which must be carefully tamped. Next, the foam is laid in a layer of 20 centimeters and the floor is poured using cement mortar.
On top of the insulating material between the slats, you need to apply a vapor barrier, turning it inward with the foil side. It must be attached to the slats. This is where the thermal insulation of the walls ends, it can be used in any of the premises of the bath. If the bath is made of blocks or bricks, it is recommended to lay the insulation with a thicker layer.
Since the hottest air accumulates in the ceiling area, experts advise using fire-resistant insulating materials when working with it. The principle of operation is similar to the previous one. If there is an attic in the bath, you need to take care of the vapor barrier. Insulation can be laid both between the rafters and above them, and under them too. It should be covered with waterproofing materials, but it is necessary to leave an air gap of 20 millimeters..
If there is no attic, it will be advisable to use expanded clay as an insulating material. It is poured over the top of the vapor barrier. Layer thickness should be 25 centimeters.
When using thermal insulation panels, its own nuances appear. The undoubted advantage is the absence of the need for waterproofing, but at the same time the vapor barrier must be done efficiently and reliably.
Manufacturers and reviews
The most stringent requirements are applied to the production of thermal insulation materials in Europe. Such brands as Knauf, Rockwool, Isover and others are especially popular there. However, the strictest control of goods is in Germany. This allows us to consider them the highest quality and most reliable..
Green Planet products are recognized as one of the safest and most environmentally friendly in the world market. It is used for a wide variety of tasks and is fully certified. According to consumer reviews, the materials of this brand are durable, moisture resistant and do not pose a threat to health during operation..
Tips and tricks for use
Experts note that floor insulation materials must be completely moisture resistant. In cases with insulation of the ceiling and walls, you can use a reflector or a membrane.
An important point is the maximum density when laying the material, since the presence of cracks will negatively affect the humidity, in addition, it will increase the risk of condensation. It is also recommended to equip the bath with ventilation gaps through which the insulation can dry out..
When insulating the ceiling, it is worth abandoning easily deformable products..
In addition, masters advise installing low doors with a threshold. This will help keep the steam room warm and also eliminate any gaps. We must not forget that when using thermal insulation materials, their correct installation plays an important role. That’s why if the consumer is not confident in his own abilities, it is recommended to contact the specialists who will carry out the work efficiently and competently.
You will learn how to properly insulate a bath in the next video..