How to make a sauna stove from a pipe?

How to make a sauna stove from a pipe?

In most cases, metal stoves from a pipe can hardly be called an aesthetic piece of furniture, since after all, their main functional purpose is prompt and high-quality heating of the steam room. However, a distinctive feature of such a stove is the possibility of its own production, which significantly reduces costs when installing a bath..

Features of choice

A stove for a pipe bath is the most common heater option for a steam room of any size. Such a furnace performs its functions with high quality, it is safe both during the construction phase and during operation. The main advantage is the ability to independently build such a stove..

When choosing a specific heater project, you need to take into account the size and layout of the paired room, as well as personal preferences.. For a small area steam room, it is usually recommended to install a vertical stove from a pipe. This is a more compact option that does not take up much indoor space. The design of such an installation assumes the presence of not only a combustion chamber, but also an additional area for laying stones, as well as a water tank for heating. Externally, the stove resembles a classic potbelly stove.

If the choice fell on this variety, then it should be remembered that the presented option has lower thermal qualities, and its furnace doors and ashtrays are placed in a double room.

If space permits, then more preference should be given to the horizontal variety. There are also areas for laying stones and a container for heating water, but the doors and ash pan are located at the end of the installation, and therefore they can be placed outside the steam room, for example, in the dressing room or outside the bath, which greatly simplifies the kindling process.

The heating area of ​​the stones increases much due to the longer length of this option, the natural convection of warm air increases in the steam room.

Among the main advantages of steel pipes used for a sauna stove, it is worth highlighting the following:

  • the stability of the coating under mechanical stress;
  • reliable heat dissipation;
  • low coefficient of expansion when heated;
  • the ability to retain heat even after burning firewood;
  • the ability to use any type of fuel;
  • minimum of welding seams;
  • quick warm-up of the steam room.

A couple of disadvantages of metal structures cannot be ignored:

  • the metal heats up quickly, but it cools down just as quickly, that is, you need to add fuel quite often to maintain the required air temperature;
  • heat spreads through the space of the room unevenly.

If we compare a metal and brick oven for a bath, then the latter loses in such criteria as the heating rate, the likelihood of carbon monoxide poisoning, ease of manufacture.

When choosing a metal pipe for heating a bath, pay attention to the following points:

  • check the strength of the structure;
  • make sure there is no damage or corrosion on the surface;
  • if defects are found, reinforcement with welded metal patches must be performed;
  • functional holes can be made in corrosive areas.

Do not use high carbon steel or alloy steel. They are not suitable for making a furnace. It is preferable to choose steel with a carbon content of up to 2%. You can calculate a high-carbon material by the state of sparks when the surface is rubbed against sandpaper. It has white sparks in the form of stars scattering in different directions, while the sparks of mild steel are yellowish and straight. Alloy steel will have red, orange, or bright white sparks when tested in the same way..

      Sauna stoves are made not only from metal pipes, but also from sheet steel. Most often, a rectangular shape comes out of this material..

      Compared to such an installation, a round pipe has the following advantages:

      • a metal pipe is much easier in terms of manufacturing – in fact, it is already a ready-made firebox, unlike sheets that should be cut, cut, assembled and welded;
      • pipes are the most economical option;
      • the process of heat exchange with the surrounding air in the presence of a round bath stove is more efficient;
      • from the point of view of the movement of flue gases, the finished round pipe is also more selective;
      • the service life of the round furnace is longer, even when comparing rectangular and cylindrical pipes made of the same material.

      Scheme and dimensions

      When choosing the most preferred pipe option, you need to take into account the internal section and thickness of the steel. To do this, look at the marking: for example, it says “400 * 7”, which means 400 mm – diameter, 7 mm – wall thickness of the profile pipe. For sauna stoves, it is recommended to use pipes with a diameter of 500-600 mm and a thickness of 7-13 mm, but this is not necessary, the choice of the size of the metal pipe depends on the area of ​​the steam room and the required volume of water.

      The most common pipe size for a bath is 530 mm, such installations are considered optimal for standard steam rooms. Some saunas cannot boast of spacious steam rooms, they are used, rather, really for washing, and not for a long rest, and then small stoves are placed here, for example, with a diameter of 426 mm. If the space of the steam room allows, then a pipe with a diameter of 630 mm is also suitable..


      Vertical furnaces are usually compact in size. The grate and the stove are located under each other, and therefore the diameter of the stove is the diameter of the pipe. Making this variety is not difficult..


      Assembling the horizontal version requires more laborious work. For steam rooms, tube furnaces are used, they are distinguished by high strength rates and create conditions for effective heat transfer into the air of the bath room.

      Differences between vertical and horizontal types of ovens:

      • the flame in a vertical pipe travels a short path to the chimney in the upper part of the structure, the incandescent gases hardly touch the sides of the body, and are mostly located in the middle;
      • the horizontal version allows hot gas flows to the upper part of the installation, after which the gas, due to the rarefaction of air, enters the chimney;
      • the design of the vertical stove heats the walls of the steam room with high quality, but the floor and air at the top of the room are not able to warm up effectively;
      • the horizontal version heats up all parts of the space, except for the area adjacent to the floor and the place under the firebox.

      Before creating a furnace of any type, but especially a horizontal one, it is required to make a competent drawing of the future device. Draw a diagram of the product, indicate all dimensions on it, and follow these instructions clearly. Errors made at the stage of manufacturing the stove can affect not only the operability of the installation, but also threaten the health of the rest. In addition, it will greatly simplify the installation process..

      For the master, who first decided to do this work, it is better to use a ready-made drawing or install a typical model.

      How to do it yourself?

      Having chosen a pipe option, and having drawn a diagram in size, we proceed to self-assembly of the stove.

      The main requirements for the installation of a homemade sauna stove:

      • the pipe is installed on the foundation with a 200 mm indent from the wall, even if the top-mounted furnace is lightweight;
      • in the area where the metal pipe will come out, it is necessary to make a thickening of 120 mm;
      • 500 mm – minimum overhang of the pipe above the roof;
      • all wooden parts are treated with insulation material with a layer of clay;
      • the surface of the chimney in the area between the ceiling and the roof goes through the stages of plastering, a lime mortar is applied to the material;
      • the shelves should be located next to the wall where the oven is located.

      For work, you will need the following materials and tools:

      • a piece of pipe for the body of a sauna stove;
      • a piece of pipe for gas discharge;
      • metal sheet 10-12 mm thick;
      • furnace elements, you can buy them or make them yourself: grate, doors for separating the firebox and blower, ash pan;
      • Bulgarian;
      • welding machine.

      As noted above, you can make stove accessories with your own hands, but the purchased parts, although they will cost a pretty penny, will still speed up the work, and the result will be more aesthetic.

      The vertical assembly technology is based on a one and a half meter pipe cut.

      The assembly of the vertical version takes place in certain stages..

      • We develop formwork for a square-shaped foundation. To determine the size, add one and a half meters to the side diameter. For reinforcement, it is necessary to place reinforcement in the concrete. The minimum foundation thickness is 200 mm. After the concrete has set, we lay bricks on the surface.
      • We take a meter-long piece of pipe, cut out a 50×200 mm hole from the bottom, during operation this section will serve as an ash-pan. Make sure the bottom of the workpiece is completely flat.
      • We strengthen the bottom of the firebox above the blower door. We cut out a metal circle with a thickness of 12 mm and more, organize a grate in the center of the sheet, which is a lattice with the dimensions of the width of the rods corresponding to the distance between them.
      • We retreat from the bottom about 50 mm and cut a hole for the firebox. Door parameters – 250×300 mm. We weld the hinges and equip the sash.

      • At the top of the firebox, we mount a rectangular platform made of metal, welded at the corners to the pipe, serving as a cut-off device. The air that will spread between the walls of the pipe and the edges of this sheet will heat up the walls of the device better.
      • Place the heater on top of the structure. We develop its lower part from a lattice with rods 12-16 mm thick. We retreat upwards 50-100 mm and weld it. The door is made according to the principles of a combustion door.
      • The water tank can be made from the remaining sheet 1.5 meters long, its bottom will cover the top of the heater. In the middle of the disc, which should be used to weld the bottom, we drill a hole for the pipe. We organize a removable cover, at the bottom we form a tap.

      The vertical oven for the bath is ready. There is no need for expensive materials and modern high-tech tools for manufacturing. But still, the master must have a welded practice..

          To make a horizontal view of the furnace, you will need a piece of pipe 0.8 meters long. The door is usually installed in the dressing room; it is impossible to mount a water tank into the pipe in this design.

          The assembly principles involve several stages..

          • The first stage is again the arrangement of the foundation. We do this in the same way as when installing the vertical option..
          • Cut out a rectangle with parameters 400×800 mm from metal 100-120 mm thick, weld the grate into the center.
          • We weld the cut out workpiece inside the future heater. Make sure that the welds on the grate are at the top, not the bottom. Then they get less stress..
          • Cut out a rectangular metal plane, rounded at the top, 600 mm wide, 700 mm high. This will be the front wall of the stove..

          • In the front we make holes for the firebox and ash pan, we mount the doors.
          • For the back wall, we make a rectangle cut out of metal. Workpiece parameters – 700×900 mm.
          • Create a 150×150 mm hole in the upper part of the case at the back. We organize a vault from metal sheets and equip it from above. Cut out a section in the vault for the place of subsequent welding of the pipe, move it forward by 100 mm.
          • We weld on the pipe. The vault is the bottom of the heater. We make a wall in front.
          • Water tank, purchased or hand-welded, mounted on the back of the structure.

          After assembling any type of furnace, it is necessary to clean it from scale and rust..

          Let’s take a closer look at some of the aspects of installing a homemade stove..


          The first stage for the construction of the furnace. It should be carried out in accordance with all rules and requirements..

          To create, we perform the following actions:

          • we knock down a square formwork with a height of 200 mm;
          • evenly in squares 200×200 mm, lay out the reinforcement longitudinally and transversely in one layer;
          • we fasten the reinforcement elements with knitting wire in the connection areas;
          • drive in four pieces of reinforcement along the edges of the lattice, attach the lattice to them.

          Two weeks after pouring, it is necessary to open the windows and doors in the room, and cover the foundation with wet rags. This will prevent surface cracking. It is recommended to moisten the rags for a couple of weeks.


          The grate is a special grate designed to provide traction.

          Collecting the grate is also an easy task. For this:

          • we cut out a rectangle of the required parameter from the metal, that is, so that it fully corresponds to the internal dimensions of the pipe;
          • cut out the center in the prepared plate so that there are areas for welding at the edges;
          • weld metal rods horizontally or vertically.

          Crafting tips

          Before you start assembling a sauna stove with your own hands, use the advice of professionals.

          • Try to get spiral pipe cuttings, they are more accurate, not so elliptical and are made from more suitable steel. You can also buy them at the price of scrap metal. You can use seamless pipes, but only for the manufacture of small elements.
          • Many people prefer to use stainless steel for assembling a firebox, a water tank and a chimney. This is a good option, but remember that welding will require the use of stainless steel electrodes or special welding wire..
          • During the working process, it is recommended to weld supports to the pipe so that it does not roll over and complicate the work.
          • When installing a vertical model, it is required to leave at least 1/3 of the diameter of the stove, holes for the entry of smoke into the chimney.
          • It is recommended to place the external stone door so that during operation it is directed in the opposite direction from the place where people rest. This will protect the visitors of the bath from being burned by hot steam when moisture gets on hot stones while maintaining the heat..

          • Many craftsmen advise placing the weld under the grate, since the connecting seams are primarily destroyed by temperature..
          • It is recommended to insulate the outer walls of the chimney with a thick layer of mineral or basalt wool to reduce the likelihood of corrosion inside the structure..
          • It is necessary to fill the tank with water in advance of kindling – moisture that gets on the metal surface can provoke burns from steam shock.
          • For decorative purposes, it is recommended to cover the metal oven with refractory paint..
          • If the stove is covered with paint, then it is better to heat it in the fresh air before installation work. Thus, excess paint will burn without causing harm to the human body..
          • Cover the stove with a brick screen. This will provide a more even distribution of heated air, as well as protect vacationers from severe burns..

          Successful examples

          Study the options for vertical and horizontal ovens from the photo on the Internet. Among them are aesthetic painted models, and simpler varieties, but the manufacturing design and installation are not particularly different. You don’t have to be a professional for this, the main thing is to follow the scheme and the indicated dimensions..


          Brick lining

          In order to make the metal stove more aesthetic, it is recommended to overlay it with bricks..

          Styling examples may vary.

          • Solid cladding. Provides for fast heat transfer, which somewhat reduces the performance of the heating device. Performs an exclusively decorative function.
          • Heat shield. It is a small stone fence. Increases heat transfer and creates comfortable conditions for vacationers in the immediate vicinity of the stove.
          • Facing convector with air vents. The most versatile option. Suitable for decorating any metal structure, regardless of the area of ​​\ u200b \ u200bthe room.


          Another good example for decorating a metal structure is bluing. This method is a surface treatment using chemical compounds that not only give the device aesthetic properties, but also protect against corrosion for a long time..

          The applied layer will last longer if the metal surface is very thoroughly cleaned beforehand. To do this, it is not necessary to buy professional formulations, you can independently prepare a solution from butyl alcohol (4 grams), phosphoric acid (150 grams) and water (1 liter).

          After cleaning and removing residual acids, it is necessary to melt the furnace to 150 degrees and cover the metal with a layer of caustic soda for an hour. It will be more convenient to spray the composition.


            Special heat-resistant paints can now be found for painting metal furnaces. When choosing a type of paint, remember that a smoother and more shiny surface gives off much less heat, and a rough pipe, painted in a dark color, spreads heat to the maximum. It is not recommended to use aluminum paint for this purpose..

            A do-it-yourself sauna stove is not only an excellent alternative to the factory version, but also the opportunity to carry out a project that will correspond to individual conditions – the space of the steam room, preferences for steam quality (dry or wet), personal needs.

            Video master class on making a bath stove from a pipe, see below.

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