There are many options for greenhouses and greenhouses on the Russian market. But among them, a special place is occupied by structures with an opening top. To choose and use such a system correctly, you must first find out all the details about it..
Advantages and disadvantages
A good harvest depends on how well the greenhouse is chosen. Even the most experienced developers can make mistakes; in addition, each type of construction is not suitable for solving certain problems in the same way. The grower should choose a greenhouse of a format that meets his needs and creates a minimum of additional problems. There is reason to believe that open top greenhouses are one of the best solutions.
With the onset of winter, not everyone is able to keep order at the dacha continuously. If heavy snow falls, it can destroy the greenhouse in a few hours. It is not always possible to restore it after a breakdown. It is much easier to change the structure or make it from scratch. Here are just unnecessary efforts or significant investments, few people will please.
And in the case when the greenhouse is made with a sliding or sliding roof, the snowfall is not so terrible for it. The falling snow is inside and does not press on the shell. In addition, in an ordinary greenhouse, which does not allow snow to pass inside, the ground can freeze very much. The openable roof eliminates this problem, because the layer of snow will be the same as outside. And when the winter season is over, the accumulated snow mass will melt and systematically go into the soil..
But summer residents should also take care of protection from hot weather.. Opening the roof helps protect plants from the scorching sun. With overhead ventilation, drafts are excluded, the plantings are cooled evenly. It is worth considering that greenhouses with a folding roof are more expensive than conventional ones. But with the right choice, it is possible to ensure natural pollination, and in the summer the plants will develop in open ground conditions..
Features and varieties
A greenhouse with an opening roof can be similar to a greenhouse of a similar design. The difference between the two is in size and weight. There are greenhouses with special panels on the sides of the roof. A different type involves equipping with special panels placed on the sides. There is also a greenhouse of the “convertible” format.
The roof in this design can move in one direction or move apart in both directions at once.. If the onset of a very harsh winter is likely, the “convertible” should be considered the best choice. Arched “convertibles” are often divided into several constituent blocks. Each block either rises to a predetermined height, or leans back completely, or is removed.
A butterfly greenhouse has vents attached to the main beam. They form a kind of wings on the sides. At the request of the owners, the roof can be opened completely or only a separate part of it. “Wings” are both flat and in the form of an arch.
Most butterfly designs are small in height, so:
- the efficiency of use of space increases;
- the lighting inside will be uniform;
- plants can be planted everywhere.
The design “Matryoshka” is named so for a reason. The shelter is divided into movable blocks, which are superimposed on one another after the offset. Such greenhouses are also called “pencil cases”. At the end of autumn, all the blocks are stacked at one end, the rest of the greenhouse will be open to snow. If you completely remove all the shelter in the summer, an additional open ridge will appear instead of a greenhouse. The components of the sliding roof move along the guides. In the hinged structure, the roof simply rises on hinges.
In addition to manual opening, lifting mechanisms, including those controlled by automatics, can be used. The guides are special rails. In fact, the principle of a wardrobe is used here..
Forms and dimensions of the structure
The smallest justified size for a greenhouse will be 2×4 m.And the most rational type is 2×10 m.
In such a structure, you can grow:
- shrubs of low height;
- seedlings of apple trees and other fruit trees.
Careful study of the drawings allows you to eliminate many errors. This is very important both when making a greenhouse with your own hands, and when ordering a finished structure. Many of the problems of farmers are associated with the fact that they did not think over the features of the location of the door in the greenhouse or the arrangement of ventilation in it..
The demand for such a solution as a “convertible” is explained by the ease of installation. The vents are made in such a way that the roof moves only from the sides. There is no need to remove it. At a positive air temperature, such a greenhouse is used in ventilation mode. And when the cold season comes, it will only be necessary to move away part of the roof. Then the snow cover will form quickly and cover the perennials from the cold. “Cabriolets” have two segments, so in one greenhouse you can grow crops that require quite different development conditions.
An attractive choice for many people is the greenhouse “Lotos”.
Its dimensions are as follows:
- in width – 89 cm;
- in height – 80 cm;
- in length – 210 cm.
It is the “Lotos” greenhouses that are recommended by professional agronomists for novice gardeners. They have a small height, but at the same time completely protect the plants from bad weather. The frame of the “Lotus” is formed from a steel pipe with a zinc coating. The structure is covered with anti-pollution polycarbonate. The developers note that “Lotus” can be used to accelerate the development of seedlings.
Greenhouses with a sliding roof are made in the form of an arch or a tent. The tent type is equipped with four vertical walls. He has a roof with one or two slopes. There is also an arched and flat roof. Some greenhouses have elongated walls parallel to each other and inclined inward..
The arched structure is more like a tunnel. Its main parts are arcs. Flat walls are installed at the ends. For the manufacture of the frame, corners made of steel and aluminum are used, which can be welded or connected with screws. Steel is primed, then painted or covered with a layer of zinc; aluminum is used without protective layers.
The most convenient greenhouses reach a height of 200-250 cm. Farmers can walk inside to their full height, while the greenhouse does not take up much space. In most cases, a width of 240-350 cm is recommended. But the final choice must be made on your own. You also need to take into account which crops are to be grown and according to what scheme..
Even if the greenhouse is arranged correctly, a mistake in choosing a covering material negates its dignity. For many decades, plastic sheeting has been used in greenhouses. Even poorly trained and poorly versed people can use it. You can very quickly ventilate the plants by removing the roof or wall. But with active use, the film quickly deteriorates. Therefore, it is recommended rather for greenhouses with a tightly closed roof..
Glass is much stronger and more practical, it transmits sunlight exceptionally well. If you take care of a glass greenhouse fully, it will remain transparent for many years. The absolute chemical neutrality of glass structures will also delight gardeners. Even when heated in the sun, the taste of vegetables and berries will remain unchanged, since no substances are released into the air. Glass greenhouse is also friction-resistant.
Of course, glass will not withstand every abrasive effect. However, in general it is the most reliable material in normal use. It is also reasonable to say about the weaknesses of glass that need to be taken into account. It is heavier than other types of covering material. Most often, a glass greenhouse is placed on a foundation, especially where the soil is unstable..
But the wind is much less dangerous than using film.. Everyone knows such a defect as increased thermal conductivity of glasses. In the heat of the sun, they warm up very much. Therefore, the microclimate for plants is unfavorable. Even an opening roof does not completely eliminate the problem. But the biggest disadvantage of a glass greenhouse is its fragility. Glass breaks easily for a variety of reasons. Even a large hail can break them..
Polycarbonate is several times stronger than glass and transmits sunlight almost as well. When used, its heat is kept stably. Therefore, polycarbonate structures are best suited for year-round greenhouses. But you should not buy a simple sheet, but a honeycomb material. Its name is due to the similarity in structure to the honeycomb. Polycarbonate is made of plastic, divided into special layers by stiffening ribs and an air layer. It is this layer that helps ensure heat retention. Ultraviolet rays will not penetrate through polycarbonate.
Most often, the side that filters out harmful radiation is marked with a corporate logo. If you make a mistake and put polycarbonate outside with an unprotected surface, it will collapse very quickly. Cheap brands of material contain a lot of recycled materials. Certain types of polycarbonate may have insufficient density. Therefore, their mechanical strength is less.
It is extremely difficult to install a polycarbonate greenhouse on your own. Usually experienced craftsmen are invited for this purpose. In any case, you will have to prepare the foundation. If done correctly, the structure will last for several decades. It is usually advised, in addition to the opening roof, to use several vents and put two doors.
Caring for polycarbonate is easy. You can wash it with the simplest sponge with a solution of detergent. You can do without detergents at all, replacing them with soapy water. Exposure to chlorine and strong solvents is definitely undesirable. It will be necessary to avoid contact of polycarbonate with pesticides. Another nuance – you should exclude the ingress of water into the cells of the material.
Tilt angle: which is better?
In the middle lane, it is recommended to tilt the greenhouse roof 25-30 degrees in relation to the horizon. Therefore, the width is selected separately each time. The walls of hipped greenhouses should be tilted inward by 10-15 degrees. This technique allows you to make them warmer. Green hedges are often used for additional wind cover..
In gable greenhouses, the slopes are usually oriented at an angle of 5-60 degrees.. If a film is used for cover, the slope should be 45-60 degrees. Then the accumulation of snow or rainwater, sagging of the roof is excluded. When using polycarbonate, the roof can be mounted at an angle of 5-45 degrees. It is useful to consider that increasing the angle makes the structure more expensive and reduces resistance to wind gusts..
Use and care
When choosing a greenhouse with an opening roof, it is important to install it correctly from the outset. First of all, you need to choose a place where the most sunlight falls. This excludes all places blown by cold winds. It is also worth abandoning the installation of greenhouses under trees and near tall shrubs. The ground under the greenhouse must be solid and level, then there will be fewer problems.
It is worth putting the greenhouse where the distance to the shed is minimal. Then all agricultural work will be somewhat easier. Another point is whether it will be convenient to enter the greenhouse. When it is prepared for winter, first of all, it is freed from all vegetation, shelves and reservoirs are removed. Walls need to be rinsed and then dried.
Greenhouse fumigation is carried out systematically. This is mandatory even when using carefully tested soil and seed. For fumigation, take a sulfur stick or pure sulfur. Cracked glass or polycarbonate parts should be replaced by winter. In severe frost, they quickly burst..
Opening structures require periodic work adjustments. If problems arise, the first step is to clean the clogged grooves. Additionally, grease the hinges and tighten them. In the fall, disinfection must be carried out. Old vegetation is dug up and thrown away. If it is impossible to completely change the top soil layer, you should at least disinfect it with potassium permanganate..
When washing, special attention is paid to all the joints and borders of the greenhouse elements. It is there that colonies of microorganisms and dangerous insects most often appear. Polycarbonate elements must be washed in the spring. If several plantings are planned per season, surfaces should be cleaned before each planting..
Hard brushes, abrasive materials and sharp tools should not be used for cleaning. They will damage the UV protection of the polycarbonate. To destroy pathogens in the ground, you can use boiling water instead of potassium permanganate treatment, and then cover the soil with polyethylene. If the metal parts are rusted, you can paint them or remove the rust with special compounds, depending on the complexity of the problem. It is necessary to check the operability of the mechanisms of the greenhouse itself, as well as heating equipment, both at the end of autumn and in spring.
For high-lying and hard-to-reach places, use mops with long or telescopic handles.. Such a device is especially relevant if glass is used for shelter. All wooden elements, if any, are treated with herbicides. Then the appearance of mosses and algae is excluded. When some parts are very corroded, you need to completely replace them without delay.
Modern convertible greenhouses are reliable enough. An attractive solution for many people is the “Marusya” model. It can be easily supplemented with automatically opening vents. Using “Marusya” is very simple. Other domestically produced greenhouses are also highly valued by consumers..
The gardeners give high marks to the Altacraft Oasis model. The ease of opening and the carefully thought-out equipment are favored. You can install the greenhouse with your own hands. Judging by the reviews, airing from above allows you to do without the use of vents.
The system of the Belarusian production “Botanik Tulpan” is equipped with doors that open from left to right and hinged vents. You cannot use other elements, since everything is already configured at the factory. At “Tulip” both the roof and both walls open. From the sides, you can lift the material up to 0.8-0.9 m.But if gardeners decide that this is a lot, they can stop the rise at a lower elevation..
Owners note that opening the sides to the limit immediately simplifies weeding and other work.. As for the “Nursery” design, it is recommended to choose it because of its increased reliability. Even a late cold spring with such a greenhouse does not pose a problem in the backyard..
In the next video, you will find an overview of a greenhouse with an opening roof. "Tulip".