The sauna can be equipped in a private house. This significantly increases the comfort of the home and its attractiveness to guests. Moreover, these works can be done by hand..
Features: how and what is equipped?
The main elements of such a sauna are important components..
Most often, a wooden frame is made, which is filled with heat-insulating material and sheathed with clapboard. It is best to use stone wool as an insulating material. However, it must be taken into account that it is saturated with moisture, and therefore it must be protected with a waterproofing film. You can also use foil film. It does not allow moisture and steam to pass through and does not allow condensation to form.
For wall cladding in the steam room, aspen, linden, Canadian cedar, alder, and abasha are most often chosen. It is worth considering the characteristics of each type of wood. Aspen is moisture resistant and has healing properties. Linden has an attractive appearance and pleasant smell..
Alder has many shades, is pleasant to the touch and has low thermal conductivity. Its disadvantages include softness and, as a result, a tendency to dirt and deformation. Abashi is an African tree that also does not heat up too much in a sauna, which reduces the risk of burns. Canadian cedar has a unique aroma. Pine wood also smells good, but it is worth using it by de-resinifying it. Remember, complete resin removal is not possible, so resin stains will still show through during operation..
In general, when choosing wood for wall cladding, be guided by personal preference, sauna design and tools.
The saunas are equipped with gas, wood and electric stoves. If you are setting up a sauna indoors at home, then the latter option will be ideal. Such a sauna will be safe and easy to use. Temperature and humidity will be maintained automatically, there are emergency shutdown systems. To choose an electric stove for a sauna, you need to calculate its power. It is calculated as follows: one kilowatt of energy is needed per cubic meter. Often a three-phase network is required for electric ovens..
Most often, preference is given to doors made of tempered glass. Such a door will not change shape due to temperature changes, it is easy to clean. When installing the door, it is important to ensure the tightness of its fit, therefore, silicone filler is used.
It is worth paying attention to the door handle. It must be made of a material that will not heat up. This is especially important for the handle, which is located inside the steam room..
These include benches, headrests, shelves – in a word, everything that a person comes into contact with in a sauna. The main requirement for these items is that they must be made of wood with low thermal conductivity. It will save you from burns..
This category includes various ladles, thermometers, lamps, lighting devices – LED strips and everything that makes the stay in the sauna the most comfortable and cozy.
Most often, speaking of a sauna, it is presented as a small room, the walls of which are lined with clapboard, there is a stone stove and benches. However, if financial capabilities allow, then you can equip a whole complex, which will include a dressing room, a pool or a room with a shower, a gym with exercise equipment, a relaxation room, and a billiard room. In general, everything is limited only by your imagination and finances. In this case, you need to draw up a plan or drawing..
When drawing up the project, it is assumed that the steam room will be designed for several people, as a rule, from two to six. Of course, you can build a sauna for one person, however, most likely, without a company of relatives and friends, visiting it will lose its attractiveness..
When drawing up a sauna plan, a minimum volume for each person is assumed. Typically, it is approximately three cubic meters. Thus, for a steam room designed for two people, three square meters are enough if the ceiling height is about two meters..
The most successful option is the size 2×1.8 meters., because you can equip a sunbed near any wall. If the area of the steam room is larger, they make L-shaped and U-shaped layout options. Regarding the seating positions, it is customary to arrange two to one, respectively. It is better not to make the room for the steam room too large, since in this case it will take a long time to warm up, and it will take a lot of electricity to maintain the temperature.
The construction of a sauna begins with the finishing of the floor. The material for it can be very diverse, but you should not focus on its heat capacity. The temperature below, at floor level, is the lowest, and therefore the thermal insulation of the floor does not in any way affect the performance of the sauna.
Wood can be used as a material, but now granite and artificial materials, such as tiles, are increasingly used. The last option is the most practical, since it does not require large material costs. Floor tiles can be of a wide variety of sizes, colors and textures.. The only requirement is that it be roughened in order to avoid falls on wet floors.. It is best to glue the tiles on glue, which is designed for laying tiles over a warm floor, since it is not afraid of temperature extremes.
A material such as thermal wood has proven itself well as a floor covering. It tolerates temperature differences well, has a rough surface, has a rich, persistent color.
If you decide to make a wooden floor in the sauna, then you need to make substrates or stone posts under the logs. They should be spaced at 400 millimeter intervals. Floor boards must be well finished, at least forty millimeters thick. They are mounted on self-tapping screws, leaving a small gap (two to three millimeters). Self-tapping hats are hidden in the floor and closed with plugs.
The standard is a height of 210 centimeters. This allows the installation of standard doors with a height of 190 centimeters. In addition, this ceiling height is required to ensure normal air circulation. If it is larger, then a hot draft will appear in the sauna, which can lead to severe burns..
Fire safety requirements
Building a sauna even at home is unacceptable without meeting the following requirements:
- if the sauna is in the basement, then a ventilation system must be provided in it;
- when installing an electric or wood-burning stove, you need to observe air gaps, and also strictly maintain a distance to combustible surfaces;
- the steam room must be fenced off with partitions made of refractory material, floor slabs and walls;
- electrical appliances must be of high quality, serviceable, with good insulation;
- if you plan to install an electric oven, it is better that it has the possibility of an emergency shutdown in case of overheating.
Where can you arrange?
Before you start construction work, you need to choose the best place for your sauna. It can be located either inside a private house or be a separate building.. A good option would be to place it in the bathroom, if the footage allows. It will not be necessary to carry out the piping of communications, since ventilation, water supply and sewerage are already equipped there. The floor is also usually tiled. This will significantly save energy, money and time for arranging the sauna..
However, the sauna can be placed in any other room. The only thing that needs to be foreseen is the possibility of ventilation equipment and communications. If the house has a basement, you can equip a sauna there. When arranging a sauna in the basement, pay special attention to the ventilation system, be sure to equip it with a hygrometer to be able to control the humidity in the room..
The sauna can be placed separately from the residential building. This will require significant costs for the development of the project and the construction of the building itself, however, there will be more opportunities for planning. This option is especially good for those who decided to equip a sauna in the country, which has access to a natural reservoir. For construction, you can use a wooden beam, stone. It is possible to purchase a ready-made log house.
But even if your capabilities are limited financially, or the size of the house does not allow you to arrange a large steam room, you can always make a mini-sauna even in the smallest room, the main thing is that the minimum volume per person is observed..
If you do not want to carry out work on the construction of a sauna, or the size of the house does not allow you to acquire a steam room for a large company, you can purchase a ready-made mini-sauna. It is a cubicle that is built into the bathroom. Built-in saunas vary in size.
If the booth is designed for one or two people, then it is equipped only with seating. Bigger cabins are more comfortable – 1.6×2 meters and 2×2 meters. The height inside in such saunas is usually about two meters..
Inside, everything is equipped, as in a regular sauna – a heater-stove, shelves and benches made of wood. Walls and ceilings are composed of internal wood cladding, stone wool and external cladding.
But if you make a sauna with your own hands, and the footage of the room allows, then you can make it larger. Do not forget that one person should have about three cubic meters.. If you are equipping a sauna for four, its size should be 3×3 meters, for six – 4×5 meters.
The length from the door to the opposite wall should be at least two meters, and the optimal ceiling height is 2.1 meters. It is at this height that good air circulation and warming up of the person who is on the second tier is ensured. If the ceiling is higher, then the air circulation will be disrupted and air currents will arise, due to which you can get a severe burn..
Difference from a bath and visiting rules
Sauna and bathhouse have a number of differences. First of all, this is the temperature. In the sauna, the temperature is higher, it can reach 150 degrees Celsius and even more. Since the air temperature is high, the humidity in the sauna is low, usually about five to fifteen percent.. The human body tolerates such heat well at low humidity.. In the bath, the opposite is true. The air humidity can reach seventy percent, while the temperature is usually kept around ninety degrees..
The next difference will be the oven. Most often, saunas are equipped with electric stoves with stones on top. They warm up the steam room in a short time and keep the required temperature for a long time. Massive stone stoves are usually made in the bath. It takes longer to warm up, but it keeps warm well and produces dry steam. In such ovens, stones are usually inside, as a result of which heat is retained. In addition, in a bathhouse, a stove is needed to heat a boiler with water. In the sauna, it does not have such a function..
The third difference is that the sauna usually has a swimming pool. Or, as a last resort, showers. This allows heat and cold to alternate. This is not provided in the bath.
The fourth difference lies in the materials used for construction. When building a sauna, wood and various synthetic materials are used. During the construction of a classic bath, moss and felt were used for insulation. Of course, modern materials are also used now, so this difference is gradually losing its relevance..
The next difference is the internal structure. The sauna consists of at least three parts: a steam room, a soap room and a changing room. Additionally, a gym, relaxation room, billiard room can be provided. In general, there is enough imagination for that. Bath, as a rule. consists of two parts: a steam-soap room and a changing room. In the bath, they wash and steam in the same room. In the sauna, the steam room is not washed. Using a broom there is also pointless, because at high temperatures and low humidity, it quickly crumbles.. However, it is good to use various aromatic additives in the sauna, which often create not only a pleasant atmosphere, but also good for health..
The sixth difference is the interior design of the room. Sauna has more expensive and beautiful decoration than a bath. In the latter, everything is arranged as simply as possible..
Despite the enormous benefits of the sauna, its visit has certain rules.. In order not to harm your health, you need to know and observe them:
- In order for a visit to the sauna to bring only pleasant emotions, need to prepare in advance. Snack on something light, vegetable or fruit salad, dairy products are best. Water can be consumed without restrictions, as this will remove toxins and toxins from the body..
- Before heading to the steam room, take a shower. It is better not to wet your head. Then the body needs to be properly wiped off. It will be very useful if you make a foot bath..
- Better on the head put on a felt or fleece hat. It protects the head from overheating, and the hair from damage.
- Long stay in the steam room will not bring health benefits. It is best to make several passes. Experienced vapers recommend three. The first run should take about ten minutes. Then it is best to take a shower, wipe your body dry and drink tea or water. The second run lasts a little more, about fifteen minutes. After it, you also need to take a shower, rest for about twenty minutes. The third run is done for twenty minutes. It is during this visit that it is recommended to be on the highest ledge.
- If you decide to put water on the stones, then it should not be enough.. It is better to disperse the steam with a towel. The use of essential oils in the sauna has a beneficial effect on the human body. Choose the oil you like, add it to the water and splash it on the rocks. Pleasant scent and health benefits guaranteed.
- After you have left the steam room, walk around or sit but don’t stand. It is also better not to do sudden movements, otherwise there is a high probability of fainting.
- The steam room is not worth doing exercise and talk.
- Health benefits of sauna, you need to visit her regularly. However, steam baths are not recommended for men over the age of 30, as high temperatures can affect reproductive capacity. Women are not advised to visit the sauna during menstruation..
- Many women like to take various cosmetic masks with them to the sauna. Remember, they need to be applied not in the steam room, but in between visits.
If you follow these simple rules, then a visit to the sauna will bring you only beauty and health..
The device of views and effects
There are many types of saunas. Each of them has its own characteristics, pros and cons. Having learned more about each of them, you can choose the best option for yourself..
Perhaps, it is one of the most popular. Its feature is the alternation of hot steam and cold water. In a classic Finnish sauna, the air temperature is about 100-120 degrees, and the water temperature is about 40. The humidity is about 20 percent. This ratio of temperature and humidity leads to increased sweating. The steam room is a room whose walls are decorated with wooden beams, and along them there are benches and sun loungers.
A mandatory attribute of a Finnish sauna is a pool or, in extreme cases, a shower.. This is necessary to achieve the effect of alternating hot air and cool water. Steam and heating of the room is provided by the fact that water is poured onto a hot stone slide.
The big plus of the Finnish sauna is that when you visit it, the body gets rid of toxins and toxins. The person who is in the steam room accelerates blood flow and increases sweating. Many athletes after workouts prefer to visit such a sauna, because in it muscles recover faster..
In addition, the hot steam that is present in the steam room is very beneficial for the mucous membranes. The high temperature, which is inherent in this type of sauna, strengthens the immune system and has an effect on the acceleration of metabolism in the body. The Finnish sauna has a beneficial effect on the skin, accelerating its renewal and cleansing. It also brings great benefits to the cardiovascular system, strengthening the walls of blood vessels. Despite all this, it is best to consult a doctor before visiting a Finnish sauna..
This is a traditional Turkish bath. It has a number of features. The air temperature in such a sauna is no more than 50 degrees. At the same time, the humidity is maintained at 100 percent. There is no stove with stones to which water is fed. Walls, sunbeds and floors are evenly warmed up thanks to the hot water pipes that run underneath. Steam generators are used to generate steam. All surfaces in such a bath are made of stone and tiles. Traditionally they were made of marble. The design is done in oriental style. Even and soft heat spreading from all surfaces in the hammam warms up the whole body pleasantly.
This sauna is ideal for those who find it difficult to withstand the heat of a Finnish steam room.. In a Turkish bath, you first have to warm up on a stone lounger for about 15-20 minutes. During this time, the pores will begin to open and the natural cleansing procedure will begin. At the same time, it is good to peel the skin. Perform it with a camel hair mitten.
The following procedure is – soap massage. Foam is whipped in a large bag and applied to the body. It is best to use natural soap made from vegetable oils. This is followed by a relaxing massage. After all this, you can relax in a cool room, drink tea. After the body has cooled down and reaches its normal temperature, you can go outside..
A sauna with a hammam is very useful for those people who suffer from diseases of the respiratory system. Thanks to the moist steam, it becomes possible to cure even chronic tonsillitis, bronchitis, rhinitis, laryngitis. The Turkish bath also works well for those who suffer from joint and muscle pain caused by arthrosis, rheumatism, arthritis. The beneficial effect of such a sauna on people suffering from insomnia, depression, stress is known. In a sauna with a hammam, you can cope with problems on the skin, since the pores are well cleaned. Moreover, if you are overweight, then the Turkish bath is for you. Air temperature and massage can correct figure imperfections. It is worth remembering that it is also better to consult a doctor before visiting such a sauna..
This type of saunas is becoming more and more popular nowadays. It is a small cabin with infrared emitters mounted in the walls. Usually these saunas are small in size, designed for one or two people. The body warms up here under the influence of infrared waves. The air itself in the booth does not get very hot, the temperature is about 50-60 degrees. If you do not like a hot bath, then this option is for you.. Infrared waves penetrate quite deeply into the body by about four centimeters and warm it up better than other types of saunas.
The benefits of such a sauna are that it lowers cholesterol levels, speeds up metabolism, removes excess fluid from the body, improves immunity, improves skin condition, and helps in the fight against cellulite. Despite all the positive aspects, it is better to consult a doctor before visiting an infrared sauna..
In addition to these, there are other types of saunas, for example, japanese sauna. It is a barrel under which the oven is located. The water in such a sauna is heated up to 50 degrees, and various herbs and sawdust are added to it. The advantage of the Japanese sauna is its mobility..
Who is contraindicated?
It is forbidden to visit the steam room for people who have inflammatory diseases of internal organs, tuberculosis, problems with blood vessels and cardiovascular system, any diseases during an exacerbation, diabetes mellitus. In addition, it is better not to go to the steam room if there are malignant and benign tumors. If there was a history of traumatic brain injury, myocardial infarction, stroke, then a visit to the sauna is possible only with the permission of the doctor.
In addition, it is forbidden to visit the sauna while intoxicated or under the influence of drugs. Such conditions affect the work of the heart, blood pressure decreases and sweating is impaired. This increases the likelihood of skin burns..
For women during critical days, it is better to refrain from visiting the sauna, since high air temperatures can increase blood loss. It is also better for women during lactation not to go to the sauna, as harmful substances released from sweat can pass into breast milk..
High air temperatures affect spermatogenesis, this should be taken into account in men of reproductive age. People over the age of 60 should be wary of going to the sauna, especially if such trips are irregular. Sudden changes in temperature negatively affect blood vessels.
It is forbidden for pregnant women to visit the sauna for a period of up to 13 weeks, since the high air temperature can have a negative effect on the fetus. In the second and third trimester, sauna visits are allowed only with the permission of the gynecologist.
To make your sauna the best and delight you with its functionality and design, it’s better to stick to simple rules.
- before building a sauna, decide how many people it will be designed for;
- based on the area of the steam room, decide on the type and power of the oven;
- plan where you will have sun loungers and benches, and remember that the distance from them to the stove should be at least one hundred centimeters;
- plan how the water supply, sewerage, electricity will be connected;
- Consider the location of the changing room, lounge, shower or pool;
- draw up a drawing;
- decide on the types of material and its amount;
- start building your dream sauna.
People who have a sauna in a private house generally speak positively about it. They note the convenience and ease of use, health benefits, the possibility of SPA procedures at home.
Among the shortcomings, there is an increased risk of fire hazard, an increase in electricity bills and amounts for home insurance. And also many people note that it is necessary to carefully work out the sauna plan and pay special attention to the insulation and ventilation system so that in the future there will be no problems associated with the appearance of mold and mildew..
In this video, you will see the implementation of a sauna project in a private house..